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Table 1 Frequency distribution of OA children’s sociodemographic characteristics, oral health-related behaviours, oral health status, and their associations with Child-OIDP score

From: Oral health-related quality of life among 11–12 year old indigenous children in Malaysia

Variable n (%) OIDP score Mean (SD) OIDP score (Quartiles) P value1
Age/year
 11 151 (66.5) 6.38 (9.7) (0.0, 2.8, 8.3) 0.3182
 12 76 (33.5) 3.73 (5.1) (0.0, 2.8, 5.6)  
Gender
 Female 110 (48.5) 5.63 (8.1) (0.0, 2.8, 7.3) 0.5352
 Male 117 (51.5) 5.37 (8.9) (0.0, 1.4, 6.3)  
Father’s education*
 No education 65 (28.6) 6.52 (7.8) (0.0, 4.2, 11.1)  
 Primary school 40 (17.6) 5.31 (9.4) (0.0, 1.4, 8.0) 0.125
 Secondary school or higher 100 (44.1) 4.71 (8.4) (0.0, 2.1, 5.6)  
Mother’s education*
 No education 65 (28.6) 4.85 (6.3) (0.0, 2.8, 6.9)  
 Primary school 56 (24.7) 5.56 (7.0) (0.0, 2.8, 8.3) 0.436
 Secondary school or higher 86 (37.9) 5.79 (10.7) (0.0, 1.4, 5.6)  
Father’s occupation*
 Salaried occupation 76 (33.5) 4.22 (7.7) (0.0, 2.1, 5.6)  
 Self-employed/Agriculture-based 126 (55.5) 6.58 (9.4) (0.0, 2.8, 8.7) 0.229
 No occupation 18 (7.9) 4.39 (5.7) (0.0, 2.1, 6.9)  
Mother’s occupation*
 Salaried occupation 10 (4.4) 4.31 (4.0) (2.1, 2.8, 6.6)  
 Self-employed/Agriculture-based 80 (35.2) 6.21 (8.7) (0.0, 2.8, 9.4) 0.509
 No occupation 135 (59.5) 5.22 (8.7) (0.0, 1.4, 5.6)  
Household income*
  ≤ RM1000 103 (45.4) 6.30 (9.7) (0.0, 2.7, 8.3) 0.2382
  > RM1000 31 (13.7) 7.21 (9.1) (0.0, 4.2, 9.7)  
Frequency of toothbrushing
  ≥ 2x/day 190 (83.7) 5.10 (7.9) (0.0, 2.8, 6.9) 0.3252
  < 2x/day 37 (16.3) 7.51 (11.1) (0.0, 2.8, 9.7)  
Frequency of using toothpaste
  ≥ 2x/day 182 (80.2) 5.39 (8.3) (0.0, 2.8, 8.3)  
  < 2x/day 43 (18.9) 6.07 (9.5) (0.0, 2.8, 5.6) 0.831
 Never 2 (0.9) 2.08 (2.9) (0.0, 2.1, −)  
Frequency of cigarette smoking
  ≥ Once a week 9 (4.0) 2.47 (3.3) (0.0, 1.4, 4.2) 0.4332
 Never 218 (96.0) 5.62 (8.7) (0.0, 2.8, 6.9)  
Frequency of betel nut chewing
  ≥ 1x/day 153 (67.4) 5.19 (8.5) (0.0, 1.4, 6.9) 0.036
 1–3 times/week 32 (14.1) 8.85 (10.5)β (1.4, 4.2, 13.9)  
 Once a month or never 42 (18.5) 4.03 (6.4)β (0.0, 1.4, 5.6)  
Frequency of mouth rinsing with water after eating
  > 3x/day 52 (22.9) 5.64 (7.4) (0.0, 2.8, 8.3)  
 1–3 times a day 120 (52.9) 4.57 (6.6) (0.0, 2.8, 5.6) 0.932
 3 times a week or less 18 (7.9) 5.48 (8.8) (0.0, 1.4, 7.3)  
 Never 37 (16.3) 8.30 (13.7) (0.0, 1.4, 11.1)  
Frequency of dental examination
 Once a year 222 (97.8) 5.57 (8.6) (0.0, 2.8, 6.9) 0.3542
 Never 5 (2.2) 1.94 (2.7) (0.0, 0.0, 4.9)  
DMFT score
 0 87 (38.3) 3.88 (7.6)α (0.0, 0.0, 4.2)  
 1–3 117 (51.5) 6.11 (8.4)α (0.0, 2.8, 8.3) 0.024
  > 3 23 (10.1) 8.76 (11.4) (0.0, 2.8, 15.3)  
DT score
 0 95 (41.9) 4.09 (7.6) (0.0, 1.4, 5.6)  
 1–3 114 (50.2) 5.81 (8.3) (0.0, 2.8, 8.3) 0.093
  > 3 18 (7.9) 10.88 (12.1) (0.0, 6.9, 19.4)  
dft score
 0 133 (58.6) 4.27 (4.2)α (0.0, 1.4, 5.6)  
 1–3 76 (33.5) 6.76 (9.7)α (0.0, 4.2, 8.3) 0.005
  > 3 18 (7.9) 9.18 (10.6) (0.0, 6.3, 14.6)  
GBI
 No 9 (4.0) 3.85 (3.09) (1.4, 2.8,5.6) 0.5582
 Yes 218 (96.0) 5.56 (8.67) (0.0, 2.8, 6.9)  
CPI Score
 CPI 0 (Healthy) 9 (4.0) 3.85 (3.1) (0.7, 2.8, 5.6)  
 CPI 1 (Bleeding on probing) 76 (33.4) 4.62 (7.8) (0.0, 2.8, 12.9) 0.334
 CPI 2 (Calculus) 142 (62.6) 6.06 (9.2) (0.0, 3.5, 11.1)  
  1. 1 Kruskal Wallis test, significant level is p < 0.05
  2. 2 Mann Whitney test, significant level is p < 0.05
  3. α Mann Whitney test, adjusted significant level p < 0.017
  4. β Dunn Bonfferoni Post Hoc test, significant level p < 0.017
  5. * number does not equal to 227 due to missing data