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Table 1 Characteristics of the included clinical studies

From: In vivo effectiveness and safety of probiotics on prophylaxis and treatment of oral candidiasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Author and publication year Probiotics group Control group Follow-up time (weeks) Outcome indicators
Age (Average) Gender (M:F) Sample size Interventions Age (Average) Gender (M:F) Sample size Interventions
Hatakka et al., 2007 [25] 58.7–95.2 36:100 92 (Baseline 136) The combination of L. rhamnosus and P. freudenreichii 65.4–94.7 30:110 100 (Baseline 140) Blank control 16 Candida counts; hyposalivation; salivary buffering capacity; dry mouth; mucosal lesions; oral pain; decayed teeth
Ishikawa et al., 2015 [27] 61.6 ± 7.8 6:24 30 The combination of L. rhamnosus HS111, L. acidophilus HS101 and B. bifidum 62.1 ± 9.4 8:17 25 Placebo 5 Candida counts
Kraft-Bodi et al., 2015 [26] 88.3 ± 5.7 35:60 84 (Baseline 95) L. reuteri 87.7 ± 7.7 42:61 90 (Baseline 103) Placebo 12 Candida counts; oral hygiene; gingival inflammation
Miyazima et al., 2017 [30] 66.1 ± 11.6 4:15 19 L. acidophilus 65.5 ± 10.5 3:17 20 Blank control 8 Candida counts
61.7 ± 14.1 3:17 20 L. rhamnosus
Li et al., 2014 [31] 62.72 ± 9.57 5:29 34 The combination of B. longum, L. bulgaricus, S. thermophiles, 2% Sodium bicarbonate solution and 2% Nysfungin cataplasm 64.84 ± 11.92 7:24 31 2% Sodium bicarbonate solution + 2% Nysfungin cataplasm 4 Candida counts; pain level; hyperaemia
Mishra et al., 2016 [32] 8.65 9:11 20 Probiotics mint tablet (unknown the types of probiotics) 8.90 11:9 20 0.2% Chlorhexidine digluconate 1 Candida counts
9.70 12:8 20 Herbal gargle