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Table 2 Assessment of oral cancer knowledge and human papillomavirus (HPV) knowledge among study participants

From: Dental students’ awareness and attitudes toward HPV-related oral cancer: a cross sectional study at the University of Jordan

Educational stage Pre-clinical groupa Clinical groupb P valuec
Survey item YES Nd (%) NO N (%) YES N (%) NO N (%)
Oral cancer Knowledge
 Have you ever heard of oral cancer? 123 (79.4) 32 (20.6) 221 (100) 0 < 0.001
Where do you think oral cancer is found in the oral cavity?
Tongue 49 (40.2) 73 (59.8) 214 (96.8) 7 (3.2) < 0.001
Lips 29 (23.8) 93 (76.2) 128 (57.9) 93 (42.1) < 0.001
Palate 58 (47.5) 64 (52.5) 134 (60.6) 87 (39.4) 0.023
Jaw bone 38 (31.1) 84 (68.9) 135 (61.1) 86 (38.9) < 0.001
Buccal mucosa 72 (59.0) 50 (41.0) 143 (64.7) 78 (35.3) 0.351
Floor of the mouth 52 (42.6) 70 (57.4) 200 (90.5) 21 (9.5) < 0.001
Other sitese 3 (2.5) 119 (97.5) 9 (4.1) 212 (95.9) 0.550
Which of the following describes the clinical appearance of the early lesion of oral cancer?
White lesion 46 (37.7) 76 (62.3) 155 (70.1) 66 (29.9) < 0.001
Red lesion 21 (17.2) 101 (82.8) 134 (60.6) 87 (39.4) < 0.001
Ulcer 42 (34.4) 80 (65.6) 138 (62.4) 83 (37.6) < 0.001
Mass 42 (34.4) 80 (65.6) 114 (51.6) 107 (48.4) 0.002
Othersf 0 122 (100) 7 (3.2) 214 (96.8) 0.054
What are the signs and symptoms of oral cancer?
Mucosal bleeding 44 (36.1) 78 (63.9) 111 (50.2) 110 (49.8) 0.013
Difficulty in swallowing 54 (44.3) 68 (55.7) 139 (62.9) 82 (37.1) 0.001
Tooth mobility 29 (23.8) 93 (76.2) 111 (50.2) 110 (49.8) < 0.001
Lymph node enlargement 76 (62.3) 46 (37.7) 191 (86.4) 30 (13.6) < 0.001
Othersg 0 122 (100) 6 (2.7) 215 (97.3) 0.093
What are the risk factors for oral cancer?
Smoking 102 (83.6) 20 (16.4) 216 (97.7) 5 (2.3) < 0.001
Alcohol 38 (31.1) 84 (68.9) 194 (87.8) 27 (12.2) < 0.001
Positive family history 51 (41.8) 71 (58.2) 168 (76.0) 53 (24.0) < 0.001
HPVh 48 (39.3) 74 (60.7) 195 (88.2) 26 (11.8) < 0.001
HPV Knowledge Correct answer N (%) Incorrect answer N (%) Correct answer N (%) Incorrect answer N (%) P value
-Have you ever heard of HPV? 52 (65.0) 28 (35.0) 214 (100.0) 0 < 0.001
-HPV causes AIDS i 28 (53.8) 24 (46.2) 154 (73.0) 57 (27.0) 0.011
-HPV can cause a sexually transmitted infection 43 (82.7) 9 (17.3) 194 (92.8) 15 (7.2) 0.032
-Antibiotics can cure HPV infection 40 (75.5) 13 (24.5) 186 (86.9) 28 (13.1) 0.054
-Most HPV infections resolve within a short time 16 (32.0) 34 (68.0) 46 (22.1) 162 (77.9) 0.145
-Certain strains of HPV causes cervical cancer 47 (88.7) 6 (11.3) 199 (94.8) 11 (5.2) 0.121
-HPV causes herpes and cold sores 13 (24.5) 40 (75.5) 120 (56.9) 91 (43.1) < 0.001
-A person can have HPV without knowing it 40 (75.5) 13 (24.5) 192 (91.0) 19 (9.0) 0.004
-HPV can cause oral cancer 43 (82.7) 9 (17.3) 206 (97.2) 6 (2.8) < 0.001
-We have a vaccine for HPV 22 (44.0) 28 (56.0) 78 (36.8) 134 (63.2) 0.419
  1. aPre-clinical group: Pre-clinical doctor of dental surgery (DDS) students (2nd and 3rd year students), bClinical group: Clinical DDS students (4th and 5th year students), interns, and postgraduate maxillofacial residents, cP value: calculated using two-sided Fisher’s exact test. dN: number. eOther sites reported: salivary glands (n = 6), gingivae (n = 5), pharynx and larynx (n = 1). fOthers: painless mass (n = 5), non-healing lesion (n = 2). gOthers: painless mass (n = 5), tooth root resorption (n = 1). hHPV: human papillomavirus. iAIDS: acquired immune deficiency syndrome