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Table 2 The deviation of total error, longitudinal error, and angular error between maxilla and mandible

From: The influence of dental experience on a dental implant navigation system

  Maxilla (Mean ± SD) P-valueb Mandible (Mean ± SD) P-valueb
VS CR R3 DI DC MCc VS CR R3 DI DC MCc
Total Error (mm) 2.15 ± 1.44 2.48 ± 0.77 2.26 ± 0.95 2.52 ± 0.87 1.82 ± 0.82 0.3193 1.85 ± 1.02 1.36 ± 0.64 1.95 ± 0.74 2.28 ± 0.87 1.52 ± 0.92 0.0351
  DI > CRa
Longitudinal Error (mm) 1.31 ± 0.91 0.77 ± 0.52 0.54 ± 0.39 0.83 ± 0.83 0.98 ± 0.46 0.0309 2.00 ± 0.96 1.70 ± 1.14 0.75 ± 0.52 1.01 ± 0.69 0.97 ± 0.61 0.0002
VS > CRa VS > R3a
VS > DCa
VS > DIa
CR > R3a
Angular Error (degrees) 6.47 ± 3.37 4.96 ± 1.98 5.79 ± 2.26 6.36 ± 2.86 4.99 ± 1.56 0.2978 6.34 ± 3.28 8.12 ± 6.25 5.00 ± 3.76 7.03 ± 2.39 3.15 ± 2.23 0.0088
  CR > DCa
  1. aOne-way ANOVA (P < .05)
  2. bTukey-Kramer HSD
  3. cMC: Multiple comparison
  4. CR: Chief resident; DC: Dental clerk; DI: Dental intern; R3: Third year resident; VS: Visiting staff