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Table 3 Univariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for tertiles of quality of life score (lowest tertile was used as the reference), according to categories of potential predictorsa, among all participants (Weighted N = 1821)

From: Association between gingival parameters and Oral health–related quality of life in Caribbean adults: a population-based cross-sectional study

Predictors Tertile 2 vs. Tertile 1 (ref.) Tertile 3 vs. Tertile 1 (ref.)
OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Age, years 1.00 (0.99; 1.01) 0.725 1.00 (0.99; 1.01) 0.411
Gender
 Male 0.84 (0.70; 1.01) 0.063 0.64 (0.50; 0.82) < 0.001
 Female (ref.) 1.0 1.0
Level of education (WtN = 1817)b
 None/basic 1.18 (0.80; 1.73) 0.401 1.97 (1.38, 2.79) < 0.001
 Middle/technical 1.14 (0.84; 1.54) 0.419 1.35 (1.06; 1.72) 0.017
 University (ref.) 1.0 1.0
Smoking (WtN = 1818)b
 Current 1.27 (0.95; 1.69) 0.102 1.91 (1.45; 2.50) < 0.001
 Past 0.97 (0.73; 1.31) 0.859 0.99 (0.72; 1.37) 0.960
 Never (ref.) 1.0 1.0
Any diseases/conditions
 Yes 0.96 (0.75; 1.23) 0.752 1.35 (1.10; 1.66) 0.004
 No (ref.) 1.0 1.0
Diabetes
 Yes 1.06 (0.73; 1.53) 0.772 1.41 (1.00; 1.99) 0.053
 No (ref.) 1.0 1.0
Hypertension
 Yes 1.03 (0.75; 1.42) 0.845 1.23 (0.96; 1.58) 0.102
 No (ref.) 1.0 1.0
Number of missing teeth 1.03 (0.99;1.06) 0.055 1.07 (1.04; 1.09) < 0.001
Mean gingival index 1.45 (1.01; 2.07) 0.044 2.41 (1.91; 3.05) < 0.001
Mean interproximal gingival index 1.45 (1.02; 2.07) 0.041 2.40 (1.89; 3.04) < 0.001
Gingival bleeding at ≥ 40% of probing sites
 Yes 1.15 (0.86; 1.53) 0.353 1.67 (1.31; 2.13) < 0.001
 No (ref.) 1.0 1.0
Mean plaque index 1.41 (0.76; 2.61) 0.279 3.33 (1.65; 6.70) < 0.001
Mean interproximal plaque index 1.50 (0.73; 3.11) 0.272 2.27 (1.26; 4.07) 0.006
Visible plaque index (plaque index ≥ 30%)
 Yes 1.57 (0.77; 3.22) 0.214 2.00 (1.16; 3.43) 0.013
 No (ref.) 1.0 1.0
Mean calculus index (WtN = 1819)b 1.27 (0.91; 1.78) 0.159 1.58 (1.16; 2.15) 0.004
Mean interproximal calculus index (WtN = 1819)b 1.32 (0.91; 1.92) 0.141 1.55 (1.14; 2.11) 0.005
Frequency of dental visits
  ≥ Once per year (ref.) 1.0 1.0
 Never 0.56 (0.31; 1.00) 0.049 1.07 (0.55; 2.10) 0.847
 Only when there is a problem 1.12 (0.79; 1.58) 0.515 1.59 (1.25; 2.29) < 0.001
 Missing 0.68 (0.36; 1.29) 0.239 0.28 (0.83; 1.98) 0.264
Frequency of tooth brushing (WtN = 1815)b
  ≥ Three times per day 0.25 (0.05; 1.31) 0.100 0.50 (0.09; 2.83) 0.432
 Twice per day 0.28 (0.06; 1.38) 0.118 0.44 (0.08; 2.55) 0.362
 Once per day 0.20 (0.04; 1.06) 0.058 0.65 (0.13; 3.35) 0.605
  < Once per day (ref.) 1.0 1.0
Use of dental floss
 Yes 0.98 (0.77; 1.23) 0.831 0.72 (0.59; 0.89) 0.002
 No (ref.) 1.0 1.0
Location
 Kingston 1.05 (0.78; 1.42) 0.737 1.38 (1.04; 1.83) 0.026
 Santo Domingo 0.97 (0.70 l 1.34) 0.838 1.33 (1.03; 1.72) 0.029
 San Juan (ref.) 1.0 1.0
  1. aOdds ratio estimates were obtained from multinomial logistic regression models, with each predictor separately and the three-level categorical OHIP score (tertile) as the outcome, using the lowest tertile (best summary quality of life score) as the reference
  2. bFor these models, only participants with non-missing information on the predictor were included