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Table 1 Socio-demographic and dental characteristics of the study groups stratified by their pregnancy status and utilization of dental services

From: Utilization of dental services among low and middle income pregnant, post-partum and six-month post-partum women

Variables Pregnancy Status Sought Dental Care (last 6 months) 
TotalSix-month post-partum womenPregnant womenPost-Partum womenP value*YesP value*
450 (100.0)
N (%)
150 (33.3)
N (%)
150 (33.3)
N (%)
150 (33.3)
N (%)
224 (49.8)
N (%)
Place of Residence
 Urban143 (39.6)31 (37.3)49 (38.3)63 (42.0)0.7361 (42.6)0.28
 Rural218 (60.4)52 (62.7)79 (61.7)87 (58.0)106 (48.6)
Religion
 Hindu303 (67.3)98 (65.3)89 (59.3)116 (77.3)0.02140 (46.2)0.04
 Christian86 (19.1)31 (20.7)37 (24.7)18 (12.0)53 (61.6)
 Muslim61 (13.6)21 (14.0)24 (16.0)16 (10.7)31 (50.8)
Education
 Primary and Secondary212 (47.1)45 (30.0)68 (45.3)99 (66.0)< 0.0184 (39.6)< 0.01
 Higher Secondary146 (32.4)68 (45.3.)40 (26.7)38 (25.3)83 (56.8)
 Graduate and Above92 (20.4)37 (24.7)42 (28.0)13 (8.7)57 (61.9)
Occupation
 Unemployed362 (80.4)96 (64.0)127 (84.7)139 (92.7)< 0.01167 (46.1)< 0.01
 Employed88 (19.6)54 (36.0)23 (15.3)11 (7.3)57 (64.7)
Socio-economic status
 Middle134 (29.8)39 (26)46 (30.7)49 (32.7)0.4160 (44.8)0.18
 Low316 (70.2)111 (74.0)104 (69.3)101 (67.3)164 (51.9)
Frequency of eating sugary foods
 < 3 times/day149 (33.1)64 (42.7)34 (22.7)51 (34.0)< 0.0177 (51.7)0.85
 3–5 times/day211 (46.9)60 (40.0)77 (51.3)74 (49.3)103 (48.8)
 > 5 times/day90 (20.0)26 (17.3)39 (26.0)25 (16.7)44 (48.9)
Frequency of brushing
 Regular (Brush > 1/day)240 (53.3)87 (58.0)85 (56.7)68 (45.3)0.09126 (52.5)0.30
 Irregular (Brush ≤1/day)210 (46.7)63 (42.0)65 (43.3)82 (54.7)98 (46.7)
Bleeding while brushing
 No230 (51.1)99 (66.0)51 (34.0)80 (53.3)< 0.01117 (50.9)0.64
 Yes220 (48.9)51 (34.0)99 (66.0)70 (46.7)107 (48.6)
Dental problems (last 6 months)
 No211 (46.9)82 (54.7)58 (38.7)71 (47.3)0.0295 (45.0)0.06
 Yes239 (53.1)68 (45.3)92 (61.3)79 (52.7)129 (54.0)
Sought dental care (last 6 months)
 No226 (50.2)38 (25.3)60 (40.0)128 (85.3)< 0.01  
 Yes224 (49.8)112 (74.7)90 (60.0)22 (14.7)  
Barriers to dental care during pregnancy
 Lack of need111 (24.7)63 (42.0)30 (20.0)18 (12.0)< 0.0168 (61.3)< 0.01
 Fear38 (8.4)11 (7.3)13 (8.7)14 (9.3)15 (39.5)
 Concern for child’s safety249 (55.3)61 (40.7)94 (62.7)94 (62.7)124 (49.8)
 Financial issues52 (11.6)15 (10.0)13 (8.7)24 (16.0)17 (32.7)
Advised on seeking dental care
 No402 (89.3)133 (88.7)136 (90.7)133 (88.7)0.81199 (49.5)0.43
 Yes48 (10.7)17 (11.3)14 (9.3)17 (11.3)25 (52.1)
Dental diseases lead to other medical conditions
 No419 (93.1)133 (88.7)136 (90.7)150 (100.0)< 0.01203 (48.4)0.04
 Yes31 (6.9)17 (11.3)14 (9.3)0 (0.0)21 (67.7)
Bleeding from gums is normal during pregnancy
 No124 (27.6)41 (27.3)43 (28.7)40 (26.7)0.9961 (49.2)0.48
 Yes326 (72.4)109 (72.7)107 (71.3)110 (73.3)163 (52.0)
Self-reported oral health status
 Good43 (9.6)26 (17.3)8 (5.3)9 (6.0)< 0.0126 (60.5)< 0.01
 Moderate284 (63.1)108 (72.0)96 (64.0)80 (53.3)151 (53.2)
 Poor123 (27.3)16 (10.7)46 (30.7)61 (40.7)47 (38.2)
Self-rating of general health
 Good58 (12.9)46 (30.7)9 (6.0)3 (2.0)< 0.0139 (67.2)< 0.01
 Moderate268 (59.6)92 (61.3)98 (65.3)78 (52.0)135 (50.4)
 Poor124 (27.6)12 (8.0)43 (28.7)69 (46.0)50 (40.3)
  1. *Chi-squared test