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Table 1 Characteristics of participants by the number of natural teeth and denture use

From: Number of natural teeth, denture use and mortality in Chinese elderly: a population-based prospective cohort study

 Number of natural teeth (n = 36,153)Denture use (n = 36,230) 
20+10–191–90P-valueaYesNoP-valuea
No. of participants5504502412,14613,479 842327,807 
Median (IQR) age, years74(67–84)84(77–91)91(84–100)95(87–100)< 0.00186(79–94)91(82–100)< 0.001
Male, n(%)3126(56.8)2489(49.5)4965(40.9)4251(31.5)< 0.0014053(48.1)10,840(39.0)< 0.001
Residence, n(%)
 Urban2349(42.7)2054(40.9)4444(36.6)5368(39.8)< 0.0014361(51.8)9919(35.7)< 0.001
 Rural3155(57.3)2970(59.1)7702(63.4)8111(60.2) 4062(48.2)17,888(64.3) 
Education time, years
 02474(45.1)2913(58.2)8447(70.0)9986(74.5)< 0.0014451(53.1)19,374(70.1)< 0.001
  > =13009(54.9)2090(41.8)3624(30.0)3414(25.5) 3935(46.9)8269(29.9) 
Living arrangement
 Living alone4870(88.6)4260(84.8)10,473(86.3)11,927(88.5)< 0.0017335(87.1)24,268(87.3)0.60
 With others628(11.4)762(15.2)1668(13.7)1546(11.5) 1086(12.9)3523(12.7) 
Sufficient income for daily needs
 Yes, n(%)3979(80.8)3149(77.4)6528(74.7)7882(77.6)< 0.0015608(81.9)15,974(75.7)< 0.001
 No, n(%)948(19.2)918(22.6)2209(25.3)2280(22.4) 1238(18.1)5130(24.3) 
Median (IQR) BMI, kg/m220.5(18.2–23.6)19.5(17.2–22.4)18.5(16.3–21.1)18.4(16.2–21.0)< 0.00119.8(17.7–22.7)18.6(16.5–21.3)< 0.001
Smoking, n(%)
 Non-smoker3285(59.8)3232(64.4)8311(68.5)9663(71.8)< 0.0015285(62.8)19,240(69.3)< 0.001
 Current smoker1406(25.6)1025(20.4)2180(18.0)1998(14.8) 1692(20.1)4938(17.8) 
 Former smoker804(14.6)764(15.2)1642(13.5)1803(13.4) 1440(17.1)3594(12.9) 
Alcohol consumption, n(%)
 Non-drinker3455(62.9)3383(67.4)8264(68.1)9806(72.9)< 0.0015770(68.6)19,191(69.1)0.272
 Current drinker1459(26.6)1080(21.5)2575(21.2)2413(17.9) 1745(20.7)5790(20.8) 
 Former drinker581(10.6)558(11.1)1290(10.6)1241(9.2) 896(10.7)2789(10.0) 
Frequent vegetable intake, n(%)1859(33.8)1829(36.4)4765(39.2)5546(41.2)< 0.0013030(36.0)10,989(39.5)< 0.001
Frequent fruit intake, n(%)811(14.8)563(11.2)1262(10.4)1841(13.7)< 0.0011679(19.9)2821(10.2)< 0.001
Frequent physical activity, n(%)2242(40.8)2033(40.5)4899(40.4)4889(36.3)< 0.0013713(44.1)10,393(37.4)< 0.001
Impaired cognitive function, n(%)724(13.7)1183(25.3)4633(42.6)5740(51.1)< 0.0011912(24.9)10,387(42.5)< 0.001
Restricted ADL, n(%)605(11.0)869(17.3)3483(28.8)5494(40.9)< 0.0012068(24.6)8401(30.3)< 0.001
Hypertension, n(%)2548(47.9)2133(43.9)5051(43.3)5598(43.9)< 0.0013457(42.7)11,900(44.8)0.001
Diabetes, n(%)163(1.2)153(1.3)110(2.2)155(2.8)< 0.001212(2.5)371(1.3)< 0.001
Heart disease, n(%)982(7.3)788(6.5)417(8.3)495(9.1)< 0.001935(11.2)1758(6.4)< 0.001
Cerebrovascular disease, n(%)565(4.2)478(4.0)230(4.6)304(5.6)< 0.001494(5.9)1082(3.9)< 0.001
Respiratory disease a, n(%)1540(11.5)1364(11.3)584(11.7)587(10.7)0.051078(12.9)3009(10.9)< 0.001
Denture use, n(%)
 Yes652(11.9)856(17.1)1952(16.1)4958(36.8)< 0.001NANANA
 No4845(88.1)4161(82.9)10,170(83.9)8506(63.2) NANA 
Number of natural teeth, n(%)
 20+NANANANANA652(7.7)4845(17.5)< 0.001
 10–19NANANANA 856(10.2)4161(15.0) 
 1–9NANANANA 1952(23.2)10,170(36.7) 
 0NANANANA 4958(58.9)8506(30.7) 
  1. IQR Interquartile range, ADL Activity of daily living, BMI Body mass index, NA Not available
  2. The differences were tested by Kruskal-Wallis test or χ2 test
  3. a Including bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, pneumonia