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Table 2 Hazard ratios of demographics and risk factors estimated by Cox’s proportional hazard model for mortality

From: Effects of self-assessed chewing ability, tooth loss and serum albumin on mortality in 80-year-old individuals: a 20-year follow-up study

  Men Women Total Strata model (Strata by sex)
Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P-value Model fit Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P-value Model Fit Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P-value Model fit Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P-value Model fit
Number of remaining teeth 0.98 (0.96–0.99) 0.041 0.040 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 0.655 0.655 1.00 (0.99–1.02) 0.627 0.627 0.99 (0.97–1.00) 0.148 0.148
Edentulous/dentulous 1.52 (1.13–2.04) 0.006 0.006 1.12 (0.83–1.50) 0.461 0.461 1.09 (0.76–1.30) 0.437 0.437 1.30 (1.05–1.60) 0.016 0.016
Serum albumin (g/dL) 2.14 (1.42–3.24) 0.007 0.007 2.01 (1.15–3.52) 0.015 0.016 2.30 (1.30–4.24) 0.001 0.001 0.47 (0.31–0.71) < 0.001 < 0.001
Smoking 0.86 (0.62–1.18) 0.180 0.180 1.42 (0.56–3.81) 0.492 0.490 0.79 (0.56–1.11) 0.140 0.140 0.66 (0.62–1.18) 0.341 0.341
BMI
 Normal range (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25) Reference 0.007 Reference 0.777 Reference 0.402 Reference 0.292
 Underweight (< 18.5) 1.90 (1.10–3.26) 0.021 0.81 (0.49–1.44) 0.478 1.07 (0.73–1.59) 0.720 1.12 (0.79–1.73) 0.445
 Obese class (25 ≤ BMI) 0.72 (0.49–1.05) 0.088 0.97 (0.71–1.34) 0.871 0.86 (0.68–1.10) 0.224 0.86 (0.68–1.10) 0.225
Alcohol
 Never Reference 0.853 Reference 0.278 Reference 0.189 Reference 0.511
 Almost never 0.88 (0.56–1.38) 0.570 1.12 (0.70–1.81) 0.635 1.18 (0.86–1.62) 0.304 0.97 (0.70–1.35) 0.857
 Sometimes 0.88 (0.58–1.35) 0.566 0.63 (0.37–1.05) 0.077 0.93 (0.68–1.26) 0.623 0.79 (0.57–1.10) 0.137
 Daily 0.86 (0.61–1.23) 0.414 1.13 (0.64–1.99) 0.681 1.28 (0.98–1.66) 0.068 0.91 (0.68–1.20) 0.526
  1. For alcohol consumption, sometimes there were combinations of three categories: “More than three days per week”, “One or two days per week,” and “Less than 3 days per month”
  2. For men, dental status and serum levels of albumin were statistically significant; in contrast, only serum levels of albumin were statistically significant in women
  3. Almost all of the indexes were statistically significant in men except for smoking and alcohol intake. In contrast, only serum levels of albumin by clinical cut off were significant in women
  4. Life expectancy has sex differences, and the hazard ratio of sex was a strong confounder in the investigation of the factors affecting mortality. This violates the hazard ratios of the factors being investigated. Using the stratified Cox proportional hazards model, hazard ratios of the factors investigated were assumed to be constant across the strata. The results of the strata model were adjusted for the hazard ratio of sex
  5. For the strata model (strata by sex), edentulous/dentulous status and serum levels of albumin were statistically significant