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Table 2 Primary and secondary outcomes

From: Experiential learning for children’s dental anxiety: a cluster randomized trial

Outcomes EL group TSD group Intervention effecta P value$
DA (score) 27.3 ± 11.6 29.2 ± 12.1 −2.5(− 4.9 − − 0.2) 0.042
High DA (%) 18.5 24.3 0.65(0.46–0.93) 0.019
SBP (mmHg)
 At the waiting room 108.7 ± 12.1 107.8 ± 12.7   
 After the PFS 106.1 ± 13.0 108.5 ± 14.2   
 Change −2.7 ± 12.8 0.7 ± 14.2 −2.6(−4.4 − −0.9) 0.036
DBP (mmHg)
 At the waiting room 66.2 ± 9.5 65.5 ± 10.0   
 After the PFS 68.0 ± 12.1 70.0 ± 11.6   
 Change 1.7 ± 12.3 4.5 ± 12.9 −2.0(−4.4–0.3) 0.086
PR (Beats per minute)
 At the waiting room 93.1 ± 14.0 92.0 ± 13.5   
 After the PFS 93.3 ± 13.9 94.4 ± 13.4   
 Change 0.2 ± 14.0 2.5 ± 12.2 −1.7 (−3.4 − −0.1) 0.038
  1. DA Dental anxiety, SBP Systolic blood pressures, DBP Diastolic blood pressures, PR Pulse rates, EL Experiential learning, TSD Tell-Show-Do, PFS Pit and fissure sealant; Plus–minus value is Mean ± SD
  2. aFor prevalence of high DA, the result is the odds ratio and 95% confidence interval; for DA score, SBP, DBP and PR, the results are the mean difference and 95% confidence interval
  3. $For prevalence of high DA, the P value was calculated with a mixed-effect logistic regression, which included a random cluster effect of class, and covariates of gender and school; while for difference of DA score, SBP, DBP and PR, P values were calculated by linear mixed-effect models, with a random cluster effect of class, and covariates of gender, school and baseline value (for SBP, DBP and PR only)