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Table 5 Association between OHIP domains with type of braces, demographics and oral health habits. Logistic regression is statistically significant at <.05*

From: Impact of fashion braces on oral health related quality of life: a web-based cross-sectional study

Independent variable   Functional limitation Physical pain Psychological discomfort Physical disability Psychological disability Social disability Handicap OHIP
  Exp(β) (CI 95%) Exp(β) (CI 95%) Exp(β) (CI 95%) Exp(β) (CI 95%) Exp(β) (CI 95%) Exp(β) (CI 95%) Exp(β) (CI 95%) Exp(β) (CI 95%)
Age   .97 (.90–1.05) .99 (.92–1.06) .95 (.89–1.02) .98 (.93–.1.04) .89 (.82–.96)* .91 (.82–1.01) .84 (.72–.98)* .93 (.87–1.00)
Gender Male 1.57 (.62–3.99) 1.08 (.35–3.34) .57 (.22–1.46) 1.17 (.53–2.59) .89 (.35–2.25) .20 (.04–.87)* .86 (.20–3.63) .88 (.36–2.16)
Female Reference        
Educational level Primary school .23 (.02–2.39) .80 (.13–4.90) .66 (.10–4.56) .78 (.17–3.59) 1.83 (.33–10.17) .60 (.06–6.40) 1.04 (.06–17.63) 1.89 (.33–10.84)
Secondary school .63 (.23–1.70) .65 (.22–1.93) .87 (.33–2.30) .86 (.41–1.81) .64 (.24–1.68) .11 (.02–.73)* .21 (.03–1.35) 1.50 (.62–3.66)
University Reference        
Family income Less than 1.20 (.48–3.00) .69 (.24–1.98) 1.41(.58–3.45) .86 (.41–1.81) .72 (.30–1.70) 1.12 (.33–3.81) .51 (.13–2.07) .70 (.30–1.64)
More than 1.36 (.52–3.60) 1.01(.32–3.16) 3.14 (1.27–7.78)* 1.23 (.55–2.74) 1.19 (.48–2.92) 1.51 (.45–5.14) .82 (21–3.19) 1.40 (.58–3.39)
Average Reference        
Type of braces Therapeutic 2.67 (.30–23.55) 4.99 (1.09–22.91)* .48 (.11–2.14) 1.20 (.45–.89) .30 (.07–1.38) .37 (.05–2.72) .65 (.06–7.21) .89 (.18–4.37)
Fashion 2.94 (.22–38.92) 1.17 (.17–8.08) .37 (.05–3.02) 2.59 (.40–16.89) .30 (.04–2.31) .99 (.06–15.76) .43 (.01–14.56) .25 (.25–2.56)
Control Reference        
Tooth color change Yes 1.09 (.39–2.91) 2.39 (.84–6.87) 2.57 (1.01–6.57)* 2.29 (1.02–5.12)* 3.86 (1.40–10.64)* 2.99 (.06–15.76) 5.03 (.87–28.97) 3.16 (1.18–8.44)*
Maybe 2.40 (.79–7.22) 2.58 (.70–9.43) .81 (.26–2.61) 2.72 (1.06–6.97)* 2.08 (.66–6.55) 1.02 (.18–6.01) 1.56 (.19–13.12) 3.13 (1.04–9.44)*
No Reference        
Tooth color change with braces Yes 1.42 (.64–3.24) .55 (.23–1.44) .54 (.26–1.13) 1.16 (.61–2.22) 1.71 (.80–3.54) .67 (.24–1.83) .81 (.26–2.49) 1.28 (.62–2.66)
No Reference        
Smoking Hookah Yes 1.73 (.58–5.19) .88 (.23–3.34) 1.21 (.41–3.56) .51 (.33–1.56) .81 (.33–2.35) 6.44 (1.66–25.04)* 1.25 (.28–5.57) .66 (.22–1.97)
No Reference        
Tooth brushing Twice .63 (.25–1.55) 1.07 (.36–3.34) .50 (.21–1.16) .72 (.33–1.56) .39 (.17–.90)* .76 (.23–2.59) .55 (.16–1.93) .57 (.24–1.34)
More than .75 (.25–2.30) 1.06 (.36–3.17) .36 (.12–1.06) .62 (.27–1.73) .22 (.07–.69)* .92 (.21–3.97) .13 (.01–1.33) .39 (.13–1.34)
Don’t brush 1.13 (.17–2.39) 1.08 (.10–12.12) .001 (.001) .62 (.11–3.47) .24 (.02–2.44) 18.98 (1.80–199.74)* .001 (.001) 1.09 (.19–6.20)
Once Reference        
  −2 Log = 168.74
χ2 = 12.42
P value = .65
− 2 Log = 136.25
χ2 = 16.26
P value = .37
− 2 Log = 179.04
χ2 = 29.37
P value = .01
− 2 Log = 225.59
χ2 = 10.48
P value = .80
− 2 Log = 181.29
χ2 = 28.80
P value = .02
− 2 Log =110.71
χ2 = 28.01
P value = .02
−2 Log =18.58
χ2 = 87.69
P value = .23
−2 Log = 186.57
χ2 = 20.10
P value = .17