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Table 4 Teeth and sites with PPD ≥ 5, ≥ 6 and ≥ 7 mm at baseline, 3- and 6–12 months follow up

From: Clinical effects of probiotic or azithromycin as an adjunct to scaling and root planning in the treatment of stage III periodontitis: a pilot randomized controlled clinical trial

  Baseline (a) 3 months (b) 12 months (c) p value (intra-group) Post-hoc (Bonferroni adjustment) Effect size (∆3 months-BL)a Effect size (∆12 months-BL)b ∆3 months-BL ∆12 months-BL
Teeth with PPD ≥ 5 mm (%)          
Probiotic group (n = 16) 33.3 ± 25.3 13.9 ± 12.5 9.7 ± 10.5 0.0040 a > b (p = 0.0009) − 0.7 ± 0.7 − 0.9 ± 0.8 − 19.4 ± 18.1 − 23.5 ± 21.6
      a > c (p = 0.0008)     
Antibiotic group (n = 16) 42.3 ± 24.1 12.7 ± 11.7 11.6 ± 11.6 0.0008 a > b (p = 0.0007) − 1.1 ± 0.6 − 1.1 ± 0.7 − 28.5 ± 16.0 − 30.7 ± 18.9
      a > c (p = 0.0005)     
Placebo group (n = 15) 46.4 ± 32.6 15.0 ± 21.1 15.2 ± 19.1 0.0034 a > b (p = 0.0007) − 1.2 ± 0.9 − 1.2 ± 0.9 − 31.4 ± 25.3 − 31.2 ± 23.8
      a > c (p = 0.0008)     
p value (inter-group) 0.4163 0.8307 0.8075      0.1978 0.4069
Teeth with PPD ≥ 6 mm (%)          
Probiotic group (n = 16) 15.9 ± 15.4 6.4 ± 7.3 4.9 ± 6.2 0.0184 a > b (p = 0.0165) − 0.5 ± 0.7 − 0.6 ± 0.7 − 9.6 ± 12.6 − 11.1 ± 13.8
      a > c (p = 0.0089)     
Antibiotic group (n = 16) 16.7 ± 12.6 6.4 ± 8.2 5.5 ± 8.1 0.0014 a > b (p = 0.0009) − 0.5 ± 0.5 − 0.6 ± 0.5 − 10.2 ± 8.8 − 11.2 ± 9.0
      a > c (p = 0.0007)     
Placebo group (n = 15) 26.6 ± 25.8 8.4 ± 13.7 8.5 ± 12.2 0.0054 a > b (p = 0.0025) − 1.0 ± 0.9 − 1.0 ± 1.0 − 18.2 ± 7.6 − 18.2 ± 18.4
      a > c (p = 0.0043)     
p value (inter-group) 0.6056 0.9650 0.6213      0.3702 0.2921
Teeth with PPD ≥ 7 mm (%)          
Probiotic group (n = 16) 8.3 ± 11.0 2.3 ± 2.9 1.8 ± 2.6 0.0490 a > b (p = 0.0738) − 0.4 ± 0.7 − 0.5 ± 0.7 − 6.0 ± 9.7 − 6.5 ± 9.2
      a > c (p = 0.0145)     
Antibiotic group (n = 16) 7.6 ± 7.6 3.0 ± 5.2 2.4 ± 4.7 0.0049 a > b (p = 0.0015) − 0.4 ± 0.4 − 0.4 ± 0.5 − 5.1 ± 5.5 − 5.2 ± 7.1
      a > c (p = 0.0077)     
Placebo group (n = 15) 16.1 ± 19.7 5.7 ± 8.9 5.1 ± 6.9 0.0469 a > b (p = 0.0122) − 0.7 ± 0.9 − 0.8 ± 1.1 − 10.4 ± 13.1 − 11.0 ± 14.7
      a > c (p = 0.0143)     
p value (inter-group) 0.6573 0.8204 0.3481      0.6055 0.8091
Sites with PPD ≥ 5 mm (%)          
Probiotic group (n = 16) 10.9 ± 10.2 3.4 ± 3.6 2.4 ± 2.9 0.0043 a > b (p = 0.0013) − 0.6 ± 0.6 − 0.7 ± 0.7 − 7.6 ± 7.9 − 8.5 ± 9.1
      a > c (p = 0.0011)     
Antibiotic group (n = 16) 14.1 ± 8.9 3.6 ± 4.3 3.3 ± 4.0 0.0005 a > b (p = 0.0007) − 0.8 ± 0.4 − 0.8 ± 0.5 − 10.2 ± 5.7 − 10.8 ± 6.6
      a > c (p = 0.0005)     
Placebo group (n = 15) 20.0 ± 18.6 4.8 ± 7.2 4.3 ± 6.1 0.0019 a > b (p = 0.0007) − 1.1 ± 1.1 − 1.2 ± 1.1 − 15.2 ± 14.6 − 15.7 ± 14.9
      a > c (p = 0.0007)     
p value (inter-group) 0.3755 0.8940 0.8700      0.2328 0.3160
Sites with PPD ≥ 6 mm (%)          
Probiotic group (n = 16) 4.3 ± 4.7 1.4 ± 1.7 1.2 ± 2.0 0.0180 a > b (p = 0.0215) − 0.4 ± 0.5 − 0.4 ± 0.5 − 2.9 ± 3.7 − 3.1 ± 4.1
      a > c (p = 0.0076)     
Antibiotic group (n = 16) 4.9 ± 4.4 1.6 ± 2.7 1.3 ± 2.1 0.0049 a > b (p = 0.0009) − 0.4 ± 0.3 0.4 ± 0.4 − 3.5 ± 2.6 − 3.6 ± 3.6
      a > c (p = 0.0017)     
Placebo group (n = 15) 10.2 ± 11.3 2.2 ± 3.5 2.1 ± 3.1 0.0013 a > b (p = 0.0030) − 1.0 ± 1.1 − 1.0 ± 1.2 − 8.0 ± 9.1 − 8.1 ± 9.3
      a > c (p = 0.0011)     
p value (inter-group) 0.4818 0.9371 0.6105      0.3637 0.4272
Sites with PPD ≥ 7 mm (%)          
Probiotic group (n = 16) 1.8 ± 2.6 0.6 ± 1.0 0.6 ± 1.4 0.0407 a > b (p = 0.0738) − 0.3 ± 0.5 − 0.3 ± 0.5 − 1.2 ± 1.9 − 1.2 ± 1.9
      a > c (p = 0.0195)     
Antibiotic group (n = 16) 1.9 ± 2.1 0.6 ± 1.3 0.6 ± 1.2 0.0042 a > b (p = 0.0016) − 0.4 ± 0.4 − 0.3 ± 0.4 − 1.4 ± 1.6 − 1.4 ± 1.7
      a > c (p = 0.0043)     
Placebo group (n = 15) 4.7 ± 6.8 1.4 ± 2.4 1.1 ± 1.8 0.0423 a > b (p = 0.0198) − 0.8 ± 1.4 − 0.9 ± 1.5 − 3.3 ± 5.5 − 3.6 ± 6.0
      a > c (p = 0.0169)     
p value (inter-group) 0.5671 0.8492 0.4180      0.5396 0.7226
  1. Note: Data presented as mean ± SD of percentages. BL baseline, PPD probing pocket depth
  2. aEffect size of (∆3 months‐BL) was calculated by delta mean change from month 3 to baseline over standard deviation of baseline. bEffect size of (∆12 months‐BL) was calculated by delta mean change from month 12 to baseline over standard deviation of baseline
  3. Intra-group comparison by Friedman test (p < 0.05) and Bonferroni-corrected Wilcoxon signed rank test (p < 0.025). Statistical significant in bold
  4. Inter-group comparison by ANOVA and Kruskal Wallis test (p < 0.05)