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Table 1 Innovative risk-scoring system for 42 common dental procedures: the italics column refers to the lowest risk (score 1–3), underline relates to the intermediate (score 4–5), and Italicunderline indicates the highest risk (score ≥ 6)

From: An innovative risk-scoring system of dental procedures and safety protocols in the COVID-19 era

Procedure Dental specialty Contact with saliva Contact with blood Use of air–water syringe (spray/aerosol production) Use of rotating tools, ultrasonic scaler,
piezo tools (spray/aerosol production)
Duration of procedure (minutes) Grade of risk Risk-level
Checks in Restraint or Post-Restraint Orthodontics 1 0 0 0 0.50
(30–60 min)
1.5 Low
Dental structure tests Prosthodontics 1 0 0 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
1.25 Low
Manual reduction of dislocation of the jaw Gnathology 1 0 0 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
1.25 Low
Mobile/fixed orthodontic appliance positioning Orthodontics 1 0 0 0 0.75
(≥ 60 min)
1.75 Low
Non-invasive methods (e.g. autofluorescence, blue toluidine) Oral medicine 1 0 0 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
1.25 Low
Oral rinse Oral medicine 1 0 0 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
1.25 Low
Oral swab Oral medicine 1 0 0 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
1.25 Low
Photo-biostimulation (Laser…) Oral medicine 1 0 0 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
1.25 Low
Radiographic examination Diagnosis 1 0 0 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
1.25 Low
Topical periodontal therapy Periodontics 1 0 0 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
1.25 Low
Topical treatment of dental hypersensitivity and caries prophylaxis Hygiene and prevention 1 0 0 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
1.25 Low
Test of night guard/bite Gnathology 1 0 0 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
1.25 Low
Dental impression Diagnosis 1 0 0 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
1.25 Low
Prosthetic tests, positioning and adaptation (temporary/definitive, removable/fixed) Prosthodontics 1 0 0 0 0.50
(30–60 min)
1.5 Low
Biopsy Surgery 1 2 0 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
3.25 Low
Bone graft (autogenous/biocompatible material) without rotating tools Surgery 1 2 0 0 0.75
(≥ 60 min)
3.75 Low
Cytological sampling Oral medicine 1 2 0 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
3.25 Low
Mucogingival surgery (quadrant) Periodontics 1 2 0 0 0.50
(30–60 min)
3.5 Low
Open curettage without rotating tools (quadrant) Periodontics 1 2 0 0 0.50
(30–60 min)
3.5 Low
Removal of cysts or small benign neoplasms Surgery 1 2 0 0 0.50
(30–60 min)
3.5 Low
Surgical medication Surgery 1 2 0 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
3.25 Low
Oral minor surgery (e.g. abscess incision, frenulectomy, frenulotomy) Surgery 1 2 0 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
3.25 Low
Salivary stone removal Surgery 1 2 0 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
3.25 Low
Extraction without rotating tools Surgery 1 2 0 0 0.50
(30–60 min)
3.5 Low
Gingivectomy/gingivoplasty Periodontics 1 2 0 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
3.25 Low
Endodontic treatment (1 root) with rubber dum (in subsequent appointment after access cavity) Endodontics 1 2 0 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
3.25 Low
Pulp hooding, pulpotomy, pulpectomy (in subsequent appointment after access caivty) with rubber dum Endodontics 1 2 0 0 0.50
(30–60 min)
3.5 Low
Bleaching Hygiene and prevention 1 0 3 0 0.75
(≥ 60 min)
4.75 Medium
Splinting Hygiene and prevention 1 0 3 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
4.25 Medium
Visit Diagnosis 1 0 3 0 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
4.25 Medium
Tartar scaling Hygiene and prevention 1 2 0 4 0.50
(30–60 min)
7.5 High
Extraction with rtating tools Surgery 1 2 0 4 0.50
(30–60 min)
7.5 High
Sinus lift Surgery 1 2 0 4 0.75
(≥ 60 min)
7.75 High
Access cavity (rotating instruments) Endodontics 1 2 0 4 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
7.25 High
Implantology Surgery 1 2 0 4 0.75
(≥ 60 min)
7.75 High
Open curettage (quadrant) (rotating tools) Periodontics 1 2 0 4 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
7.25 High
Bone surgery (rotating tools) Periodontics 1 2 0 4 0.75
(≥ 60 min)
7.75 High
Rhizectomy / rhizotomy (rotating tools) Periodontics 1 2 0 4 0.50
(30–60 min)
7.5 High
Sealing of dental grooves Hygiene and prevention 1 2 0 4 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
7.25 High
Apicectomy with retrograde filling Surgery 1 0 3 4 0.75
(≥ 60 min)
8.75 High
Autologous bone harvest (rotating tools) Surgery 1 0 3 4 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
8.25 High
Abutment tooth preparation Prosthodontics 1 0 3 4 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
8.25 High
Odontoplasty (1 tooth) Gnathology 1 0 3 4 0.25
(≤ 30 min)
8.25 High
Simple / complex filling using rotant tools Conservative 1 0 3 4 0.50
(30–60 min)
8.5 High