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Table 1 Qualitative description of the included studies

From: Effectiveness of beta-tricalcium phosphate in comparison with other materials in treating periodontal infra-bony defects around natural teeth: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Name of author Country Population Intervention Follow-up Comparison Outcomes
Strub et al. 1979 Switzerland Patients 8
Age 28 − 55 years
Gender 5 M, 3F
Bony defects 47
Defect Type 1-, 2-, 3-Wall defects or horizontal bone loss
Pre-surgical Preparation
Occlusal adjustment
Re-evaluation after 4–6 weeks
Antibiotic use 4 million IU oral penicillin 1 day pre-surgery
TCP was mixed with sterile distilled water (38.5% powder to 61.5% water) to form a paste
12 months Frozen allogenic graft Primary outcomes
PD* reduction
(TCP): 1.8 mm
(allograft): 2.0 mm
Re-entry BF*
(TCP): 1.2 mm
(Allograft): 1.5 mm
Secondary outcomes
Radiographic BF
(TCP): 1.05 mm
(Allograft): 0.9 mm
Residual pocket deeper than 3 mm (TCP) 38%
(Allograft): 22%
Snyder AJ et al., 1984 USA Patients 10
Age Unknown
Gender Unknown
Bony defects 10
Defect type 1- or 2-wall, furcation areas
Pre-surgical preparation
Initial-phase therapy
Occlusal analysis
Antibiotics Tetracycline 250 mg tablets, q.i.d 10 days post-surgery
Die-pressed to form discs 2 inches in diameter × 1/8-inch thick and fired at 2000°F for 2 h. The discs were then crushed in an alumina mortar and pestle, with the resulting powder being sieved to recover the 200/ + 325 mesh size fraction
18 months None Primary outcomes
PD reduction 3.6 mm
CAL* gain 1.2 mm
Re-entry BF 2.8 mm
Zefiropoulos GG et al., 2007 Germany Patients 64
Age 30 − 71 years
Gender 31 M, 34 F
Smoking status
28 S*, 37 NS*
Bony defects 93
Defect type 2 or 3 walls
Pre-surgical Preparation
Non-surgical therapy
Diclofenac 100 mg per day for 4 days, started 1 day pre-surgery
HA/b-TCP + ASB * 12 months ASB*
Primary outcomes
CAL gain
(HA/b-TCP + ASB): 3.2 mm
(ASB): 3.4 mm
(BDX): 3.2 mm
Re-entry BF
(HA/b-TCP + ASB): 1.6 mm
(ASB): 2.8 mm
(BDX): 1.5 mm
Secondary outcomes
BOP* reduction
(HA/b-TCP + ASB): 13.8%
(ASB): 14.7%
(BDX): 20.0%
(HA/b-TCP + ASB): 27.6%
(ASB): 26.5%
(BDX): 30.0%
(HA/b-TCP + ASB): 82.3%
(ASB): 69.3%
(BDX): 83.3%
Rajesh JB et al., 2009 India Patients 60
Age 20 − 45 years
Gender Not mentioned
Bony defects 60
Defect types 2 or 3 walls
Pre-surgical preparation
Occlusal adjustment
Re-evaluation after 4 weeks
Antibiotics Doxycycline 100 mg, BID for the 1st day followed by 100 mg OD for 5 days
Chitra Calcium Phosphate Cement in the form cement
12 months Debridement only (Deb)
Hydroxyapatite cement granules (HA)
Primary outcomes
PD reduction
(CPC): 6.20 mm
(HA): 4.05 mm
(Deb): 2.95 mm
CAL gain
(CPC): 5.80 mm
(HA): 3.55 mm
(Deb): 2.30 mm
Secondary outcome
GR* reduction
(CPC): 0.15 mm
(HA): 0.15 mm
(Deb): 0.20 mm
Sukumar S et al., 2010 Czech Republic Patients 21
Age 21–53 years
Gender 8 M, 13 F
Smoking status 7 S, 14 NS
Bony defects 39
Defect Types 2 or 3 walls
Pre-surgical preparation
Elimination of local factors
Occlusal adjustment
Re-evaluation after 2 weeks
Antibiotics Amoxicillin 250 mg with clavulanic acid 125 mg or clarithromycin 500 mg) were prescribed to the patients for 7–14 days
Composite material consisting of beta-tricalcium phosphate + calcium sulfate
12 months None Primary outcomes
PD reduction
(TCP/CaSO4): 1.98 mm
CAL gain
(TCP/CaSO4): 1.68 mm
Secondary outcomes
GR reduction:
(TCP/CaSO4): 0.31 mm
  1. OHI: oral hygiene instruction; SRP: scaling and root planing; TCP: tricalcium phosphate; PD: pocket depth; BF: bone fill; CAL: clinical attachment level; S: smoker; NS: non-smoker; HA: hydroxyapatite; ASB: autogenous spongiosa; BDX: bovine-derived xenograft; BOP: bleeding on probing; PLI: plaque index by Silness and Loe; CPC: cetyl pyridinium chloride; GR: gingival recession; CaSO4: calcium sulfate