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Table 1 Distribution of potential determinants and dental caries experience among 35–74-year-olds (N = 946) and stratified by fluoride levels in the drinking water

From: Fluoride in the drinking water and dental caries experience by tooth surface susceptibility among adults

Determinants Fluoride level in the drinking water Total
Lower-level
< 0.7 ppm
Higher-level
≥ 0.7 ppm
Socio-demographic characteristics 748 (100 %) 198 (100 %) 946 (100%)
Sex Female 490 (66) 138 (70) 628 (66)
Male 258 (34) 60 (30) 318 (34)
Age* Mean (SD)
Median (IQR)
52.2 (11.8)
52 (21)
54.8 (11.0)
56 (20)
52.8 (11.7)
53 (40)
Education Higher: 4 years or more 102 (14) 19 (10) 121 (13)
Higher: less than 4 years 383 (51) 98 (49) 481 (51)
Secondary school or less 263 (35) 81 (41) 344 (36)
Residency Urban 553 (74) 149 (75) 702 (74)
  Peri-urban/rural 195 (26) 49 (25) 244 (26)
Oral health-related behaviours
Tooth brushing frequency Twice a day or more 368 (49) 102 (52) 470 (50)
Once a day or less 380 (51) 96 (48) 476 (50)
Using fluoridated toothpaste Yes 401 (54) 107 (54) 508 (54)
No 113 (15) 30 (15) 143 (15)
Don’t know 234 (31) 61 (31) 295 (31)
Consumption of sugar-containing foods** Low 196 (26) 63 (32) 259 (28)
Moderate 323 (43) 96 (48) 419 (44)
High 229 (31) 39 (20) 268 (28)
Last dental visit 12 months ago or less 544 (73) 144 (73) 688 (73)
More than 12 months ago 204 (27) 54 (27) 258 (27)
Dental caries experience
D3 MFS Mean (SD)
Median (IQR)
59.0 (32.8)
55 (50)
55.0 (30.6)
51 (46)
58.1 (32.4)
54 (49)
D3 S Mean (SD)
Median (IQR)
2.6 (6.2)
1 (2)
2.1 (3.3)
1 (3)
2.5 (5.7)
1 (3)
MS Mean (SD)
Median (IQR)
27.8 (32.1)
15 (35)
24.1 (27.2)
15 (30)
27.0 (31.2)
15 (34)
FS Mean (SD)
Median (IQR)
28.5 (19.7)
26 (28)
28.8 (18.7)
27 (27)
28.6 (19.5)
26 (28)
  1. *p < 0.05 according to Mann–Whitney U test
  2. **p < 0.05 according to Chi-square test