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Table 4 Mean scores of variables before and after intervention in the case and control groups

From: Effect combined learning on oral health self-efficacy and self-care behaviors of students: a randomized controlled trial

Variable Time group Before intervention Five months after intervention p value Wilcoxon
Mean SD Mean SD
Self-care Case 3.8 0.96 4.8 0.3  < 0.001
  Control 4.2 1.1 4.2 0.89 0.527
  p-value Mann Whitney 0.057 0.002    
Knowledge Case 6.7 2.5 9.4 0.9 0.001
  Control 6.2 2.3 6.7 2.1 0.004
  p-value Mann Whitney 0.253  < 0.001    
Attitude Case 55.1 12.5 61.5 4.8  < 0.001
  Control 54.02 14.7 55.06 11.4 0.897
  p-value Mann Whitney 0.627  < 0.001    
       p value paired t- test
Behavior Case 17.07 5.61 21.21 5.07  < 0.001
  Control 18.2 5.87 17.97 5.55 0.142
  p-value t- test 0.343 0.008    
Self-efficacy Case 36.8 11.6 48.9 10.8  < 0.001
  Control 42.11 15 41.93 14.9 0.543
  p-value t- test 0.089 0.019