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Table 7 Comparison of the accuracy and repeatability according to the angle at which the examiner read the torque value

From: Experimental study on the factors affecting torque of beam-type implant torque wrenches

Manufacturer Target torque value (N cm) Angle at which the examiner read the torque value Bias (%) Minimum Maximum Mean SD Coefficient of variation (%)
Strauman 15 90° − 0.53 14.5 15.4 14.92 0.33 2.22
60° − 10.67 12.6 13.9 13.40 0.47 3.50
30° − 20.80 10.9 13.0 11.88 0.94 7.89
Nobel Biocare 15 90° − 1.87 14.2 15.1 14.72 0.33 2.25
60° − 15.60 12.2 13.1 12.66 0.32 2.53
30° − 51.20 6.6 7.6 7.32 0.38 5.14
Kyocera 20 90° 3.30 20.4 20.9 20.66 0.19 0.90
60° − 9.10 17.7 18.6 18.18 0.33 1.82
30° − 14.00 16.5 19.0 17.20 0.91 5.29
GC 10 90° 6.60 10.4 10.8 10.66 0.17 1.63
60° − 7.00 8.8 9.8 9.30 0.42 4.52
30° − 23.80 6.5 8.8 7.62 0.80 10.50
KTC 15 90° 1.87 15.1 15.6 15.28 0.19 1.27
60° − 0.27 14.6 15.5 14.96 0.32 2.14
30° − 1.33 14.1 15.5 14.80 0.52 3.53
Nippon Piston Ring 20 90° 1.20 19.8 20.8 20.24 0.34 1.70
60° − 4.90 18.6 19.6 19.02 0.33 1.71
30° 7.10 19.4 23.4 21.42 1.31 6.12
THOMMEN 15 90° 10.40 15.6 17.4 16.56 0.63 3.83
60° 4.53 15.3 16.0 15.68 0.28 1.78
30° 2.13 14.5 16.0 15.32 0.58 3.77
SHOFU 10 90° 45.20 14.1 15.1 14.52 0.34 2.32
60° 11.80 10.5 11.3 11.18 0.67 5.95
30° − 19.20 7.5 8.8 8.08 0.44 5.45