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Table 5 Unadjusted multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analyzing the relationship between disease-specific features and oral variables, with the dichotomized outcome variable presence of caries (d1-5fs/D1-5FS > 0 or = 0) in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA)

From: Dental caries in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and controls: a multilevel analysis

  Respondents, n OR (95% CI) p value
JIA category
 Oligoarthritis persistent 77 1 0.29*
 Systemic arthritis 7 0.93 (0.17–5.17) 0.94
 Oligoarthritis extended 20 1.88 (0.65–5.43) 0.24
 Polyarthritis, RF positive 4 3.07 (0.38–24.83) 0.29
 Polyarthritis, RF negative 49 2.19 (0.99–4.85) 0.05
 Psoriatic arthritis 8 2.99 (0.67–13.34) 0.15
 Enthesitis-related arthritis 23 0.64 (0.21–1.96) 0.44
 Undifferentiated arthritis 31 0.84 (0.31–2.26) 0.74
Steroids, ongoing
 No steroids ongoing 215 1 Ref
 Steroids ongoing 4 2.31 (0.26–20.58) 0.45
Steroids, ever used    
 No steroids ever used 172 1 Ref
 Steroids ever used 47 1.30 (0.63–2.71) 0.48
DMARDs, ongoing
 No sDMARDs nor bDMARDs ongoing 73 1 0.78*
 sDMARDs, but no bDMARDs ongoing 60 0.82 (0.37–1.79) 0.61
 bDMARDs ongoing (with or without sDMARDs) 86 1.06 (0.52–2.16) 0.88
DMARDs, ever used**
 No sDMARDs nor bDMARDs ever used 51 1 0.61*
 sDMARDs, but no bDMARDs ever used 79 1.32 (0.58–3.01) 0.50
 bDMARDs ever used (with or without sDMARDs) 89 1.48 (0.66–3.31) 0.34
Age at JIA onset
 ≤ 6 years 110 1 Ref
 > 6 years 109 1.66 (0.90–3.07) 0.11
Disease duration
 ≤ 5 years 117 1 Ref
 > 5 years 102 1.35 (0.73–2.48) 0.34
Remission status***
 Inactive disease/remission on/off medication 130 1 ref
 Continued activity/flare 89 1.16 (0.63–2.16) 0.63
MDgloVAS
 VAS = 0 140 1 Ref
 VAS > 0 79 1.26 (0.67–2.37) 0.48
PRgloVAS****
 VAS = 0 106 1 Ref
 VAS > 0 108 1.24 (0.67–2.29) 0.49
CHAQ hygiene item tooth brushing****
 Without any difficulty 203 1 Ref
 With some/much difficulty/unable to do/not applicable 11 1.03 (0.26–4.09) 0.96
Jaw
 Mandible   1 Ref
 Maxilla   1.02 (0.79–1.32) 0.86
Side    
 Right side   1 Ref
 Left side   1.14 (0.88–1.46) 0.33
Surface
 A: Buccal   1DE < 0.01*
 B: Distal   0.82 (0.49–1.38)DE 0.46
 C: Lingual   0.74 (0.44–1.26)DE 0.27
 D: Mesial   2.44 (1.56–3.82)ABCE < 0.01
 E: Occlusal   6.30 (4.11–9.66)ABCD < 0.01
ICC   0.47  
  1. RF, Rheumatoid Factor; sDMARDs, synthetic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; bDMARDs, biologic disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs; MDgloVAS, Physician's global assessment of disease activity; PRgloVAS, Patient's global assessment of overall wellbeing; CHAQ, Childhood Health Assessment Questionnaire; ICC, intra-class correlation coefficient
  2. *Overall p value. Surfaces statistically significant in post-hoc analyses are marked with the superscript letters of the pertinent surfaces. Scheffe adjusted p values in post-hoc analyses p < 0.05. For ‘JIA category’, ‘other medication ongoing and ever used’, and post- hoc analysis showed no differences (all p values > 0.05). **Include both previously used and ongoing medication. ***Disease activity according to Wallace and the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) provisional criteria [43, 44]. ****Responses (n = 5) are missing