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Table 1 Comparison of socio-demographic, health and oral health factors between Indigenous and non-Indigenous people

From: Predictors of self-rated oral health in Canadian Indigenous adults

Variables Indigenous
people
n = 943
Non-Indigenous people
n = 20,011
Significance
p < .0016
Socio-demographic factors
Age
18–34 288 (30.5) 4420 (22.1) p < .001
35–64 540 (57.3) 10,160 (50.8)
65+ 115 (12.2) 5431 (27.1)
Sex
Male 398 (42.2) 8903 (44.5) p = .168
Female 545 (57.8) 11,108 (55.5)
Marital status
Partner (married or common law) 433 (46.2) 11,022 (55.2) p < .001
No partner (divorced, widowed or single) 504 (53.8) 8949 (44.8)
Education
Secondary graduation or less 302 (33.1) 4685 (24) p < .001
Post-secondary education 611 (66.9) 14,813 (76)
Income
Less than $40,000 339 (36.1) 4226 (21.1) p < .001
$40,000 or more 599 (63.9) 15,774 (78.9)
Employment status
Employed 565 (59.9) 11,730 (58.6) p = .436
Unemployed 378 (40.1) 8274 (41.4)
Health-related factors
Perceived general health
Good 749 (79.6) 17,470 (87.4) p < .001
Poor 192 (20.4) 2523 (12.6)
Perceived mental health
Good 816 (86.6) 18,234 (91.3) p < .001
Poor 126 (13.4) 1742 (8.7)
Anxiety disorder
Yes 191 (20.3) 2269 (11.4) p < .001
No 750 (79.7) 17,712 (88.6)
Arthritis
Yes 251 (26.6) 5280 (26.5) p = .896
No 691 (73.4) 14,680 (73.5)
Asthma
Yes 131 (14) 1890 (9.5) p < .001
No 808 (86) 18,102 (90.5)
Diabetes
Yes 118 (12.5) 1735 (8.7) p < .001
No 823 (87.5) 18,263 (91.3)
Effects of stroke
Yes 19 (2) 267 (1.3) p = .077
No 922 (98) 19,730 (98.7)
Heart disease
Yes 58 (6.2) 1201 (6) p = .848
No 881 (93.8) 18,734 (94)
High blood pressure
Yes 216 (23) 4364 (21.9) p = .411
No 723 (77) 15,593 (78.1)  
Mood disorder
Yes 195 (20.8) 2371 (11.9) p < .001
No 744 (79.2) 17,617 (88.1)
Oral health
Dental Insurance Coverage
Yes 685 (73.1) 13,131 (65.9) p < .001
No 252 (26.9) 6808 (34.1)
Employer Insurance
Yes 440 (47.1) 11,120 (55.9) p < .001
No 494 (52.9) 8765 (44.1)
Non-Insured health benefits
Yes 159 (17) 4 (0) p < .001
No 775 (83) 19,881 (100)
Social service insurance
Yes 90 (9.6) 798 (4) p < .001
No 844 (90.4) 19,087 (96)
Dental visit for check-ups
Yes 676 (72.1) 15,690 (78.9) p < .001
No 261 (27.9) 4189 (21.1)
Dental visit for emergency
Yes 161 (17.1) 2281 (11.4) p < .001
No 780 (82.9) 17,696 (88.6)
Uncomfortable to eat foods
Yes 209 (22.2) 3092 (15.5) p < .001
No 734 (77.8) 16,919 (84.5)
Avoid particular foods
Yes 165 (17.5) 2184 (10.9) p < .001
No 778 (82.5) 17,827 (89.1)
Persistent pain
Yes 168 (17.8) 2328 (11.6) p < .001
No 775 (82.2) 17,683 (88.4)
Bleeding gums
Yes 278 (29.5) 4351 (21.7) p < .001
No 665 (70.5) 15,660 (78.3)
Bad breath
Yes 189 (20) 2795 (14) p < .001
No 754 (80) 17,216 (86)
Lifestyle behaviours
Smoking Status
Smoker 316 (33.5) 3692 (18.5) p < 0.001
Non-smoker 627 (66.5) 16,312 (81.5)
Alcohol consumption
Drinker 762 (81.2) 16,798 (84.2) p = .012
Non-drinker 177 (18.8) 3148 (15.8)  
Transportation
Driving last year
Yes 743 (78.8) 17,784 (88.9) p < .001
No 200 (21.2) 2224 (11.1)
Outcome
Self-rated oral health
Good 769 (81.5) 17,702 (88.5) p < .001
Poor 174 (18.5) 2309 (11.5)
  1. p values in italic indicate statistical significance