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Table 2 Comparisons between perceptions of oral health with demographic factors, health, lifestyle behaviours, and oral health practices in Indigenous adults (N = 943)

From: Predictors of self-rated oral health in Canadian Indigenous adults

Variables Perceived oral health Significance
p < .0017
Good
n = 769
Poor
n = 174
Socio-demographic factors
Age
18–34 230 (29.9) 58 (33.3) p = .530
35–64 447 (58.1) 93 (53.4)
65+ 92 (12) 23 (13.2)
Sex
Male 316 (41.1) 82 (47.1) p = .146
Female 453 (58.9) 92 (52.9)
Marital Status
Partner 363 (47.5) 70 (40.7) p = .108
No Partner 402 (52.5) 102 (59.3)
Education
Secondary education or less 234 (31.5) 68 (40) p = .033
Post-secondary education 509 (68.5) 102 (60)
Income
Less than $40,000 243 (31.8) 96 (55.2) p < .001
$40,000 or more 521 (68.2) 78 (44.8)
Employment status
Employed 486 (63.2) 79 (45.4) p < .001
Unemployed 283 (36.8) 95 (54.6)
Health-related factors
Perceived general health
Good 654 (85.3) 95 (54.6) p < .001
Poor 113 (14.7) 79 (45.4)
Perceived mental health
Good 692 (90.1) 124 (71.3) p < .001
Poor 76 (9.9) 50 (28.7)  
Anxiety disorder
Yes 129 (16.8) 62 (35.8) p < .001
No 639 (83.2) 111 (64.2)
Arthritis
Yes 188 (24.5) 63 (36.2) p= .0015
No 580 (75.5) 111 (63.8)
Asthma
Yes 103 (13.5) 28 (16.1) p = .367
No 662 (86.5) 146 (83.9)
Diabetes
Yes 88 (11.5) 30 (17.2) p = .038
No 679 (88.5) 144 (82.8)
Effects of stroke
Yes 9 (1.2) 10 (5.8) p < .001
No 760 (98.8) 162 (94.2)
Heart disease
Yes 41 (5.4) 17 (9.8) p = .027
No 725 (94.6) 156 (90.2)
High blood pressure
Yes 172 (22.4) 44 (25.7) p = .349
No 596 (77.6) 127 (74.3)  
Mood disorder
Yes 134 (17.5) 61 (31.3) p < .001
No 632 (82.5) 112 (64.7)
ORAL HEALTH    
Dental insurance coverage
Yes 573 (74.9) 112 (65.1) p = .009
No 192 (25.1) 60 (34.9)
Employer insurance
Yes 384 (50.4) 56 (32.6) p < .001
No 378 (76.5) 116 (23.5)
Non-insured health benefits
Yes 140 (18.4) 19 (11) p = .021
No 622 (81.6) 153 (89)  
Social service insurance
Yes 55 (7.2) 35 (20.3) p < .001
No 707 (92.8) 137 (79.7)
Regular dental visits
Yes 579 (75.8) 97 (56.1) p < .001
No 185 (24.2) 76 (43.9)
Dental visit for emergency
Yes 109 (14.2) 52 (30.1) p < .001
No 659 (85.8) 121 (69.9)
Uncomfortable to eat foods
Yes 108 (14) 101 (58) p < .001
No 661 (86) 73 (42)
Avoid particular foods
Yes 76 (9.9) 89 (51.1) p < .001
No 693 (90.1) 85 (48.9)
Persistent pain
Yes 86 (11.2) 82 (47.1) p < .001
No 683 (88.8) 92 (52.9)  
Bleeding gums
Yes 190 (24.7) 88 (50.6) p < .001
No 579 (75.3) 86 (49.4)
Bad breath
Yes 117 (15.2) 72 (41.4) p < .001
No 652 (84.8) 102 (58.6)
Lifestyle behaviours
Smoking status
Smoker 218 (28.3) 98 (56.3) p < .001
Non-smoker 551 (71.7) 76 (43.7)  
Alcohol consumption
Drinker 623 (81.3) 139 (80.3) p = .765
Non-drinker (last 12 months) 143 (18.7) 34 (19.7)
Transportation
Driving last year
Yes 634 (82.4) 109 (62.6) p < .001
No 135 (17.6) 65 (37.4)
  1. p values in italic indicate statistical significance