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Table 5 Evidence on neurological diseases and caries

From: Associations between dental caries and systemic diseases: a scoping review

Study Objectives and study design Study type Number of participants Location of study Outcomes and conclusions
Human study on neurological diseases and caries
 Cerebral palsy
  Cardoso et al. [80] Determine prevalence and risk factors for dental caries and periodontal disease in children and adolescents with cerebral palsy (CP). DMFT/dmft, gingival bleeding index (GBI) and community periodontal index (CPI) were assessed on oral examination. Additionally, type of CP, socioeconomic status, caregiver’s education level and attitudes towards general and oral health were assessed Cross sectional 80 Brazil Outcomes: Participants ranging from 2-18-year-old were included. High prevalence of dental caries (59.3 %) with mean DMFT/dmft of 1.71 ± 2.42 / 2.22 ± 3.23 were noted. Further, caregiver’s education level of less than 8 years was found to be associated with dental caries experience using a Poisson Regression model [PR = 1.439 (1.09–1.89)]
Conclusion: CP patients demonstrated high caries prevalence and association with fewer education years of caregivers
 Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  Paszynska et al.  [81] Determine prevalence of obesity/overweight (BMI) and dental caries (ICDAS) in children (under 11 years of age) with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and compare with non-ADHD control group. Behavioral evaluation and parent interview for food habits was also conducted Case-control 119 (39 cases and 80 controls) Poland Outcomes: ADHD group had significantly higher BMI compared to controls (p = 0.016). ICDAS scores were significantly different in primary (ICDAS 0,1,2,5,6) and permanent (ICDAS 1,3) dentition. Of note, ICDAS scores 5,6 were significantly higher in ADHD group in primary dentition (p < 0.001 and p = 0.009 respectively). Food habit interview showed significantly higher proportion of ADHD group participants consume sugary foods and drinks
Conclusion: Increased intake of sugary foods and drinks in ADHD patients may lead to weight gain and increased dental caries burden