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Table 1 Characteristics and dental fluorosis among children in Bang Len District, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand, 2015

From: Hydrogeogenic fluoride in groundwater and dental fluorosis in Thai agrarian communities: a prevalence survey and case–control study

Characteristic Total n (%) Dental fluorosis status
Normal n (%) Questionable n (%) Very mild n (%) Mild n (%) Moderate n (%)
Overall 289 118 (40.8) 14 (4.9) 117 (40.5) 27 (9.3) 13 (4.5)
Study area
 Sai Ngam 65 (22.5) 26 (40.0) 6 (9.2) 20 (30.8) 8 (12.3) 5 (7.7)
 Bang Sai Pa 40 (13.8) 23 (57.5) 0 14 (35.0) 2 (5.0) 1 (2.5)
 Hin Mun 67 (23.2) 18 (26.8) 6 (9.0) 35 (52.2) 7 (10.5) 1 (1.5)
 Bang Luang 106 (36.7) 41 (38.7) 2 (1.9) 47 (44.3) 10 (9.4) 6 (5.7)
 Nin Phet 11 (3.8) 10 (90.9) 0 1 (9.1) 0 0
Sex
 Female 136 (47.1) 56 (41.2) 6 (4.4) 53 (38.9) 13 (9.6) 8 (5.9)
 Male 153 (52.9) 62 (40.5) 8 (5.2) 64 (41.8) 14 (9.2) 5 (3.3)
Age (year)
 Mean ± SD 7.9 ± 0.8 7.8 ± 0.8 7.9 ± 0.8 7.9 ± 0.8 8.0 ± 0.6 8.2 ± 0.9
 6 1 (0.4) 1 (100) 0 0 0 0
 7 98 (33.9) 45 (45.9) 5 (5.1) 38 (38.8) 6 (6.1) 4 (4.1)
 8 132 (45.6) 50 (37.9) 6 (4.6) 57 (43.1) 16 (12.1) 3 (2.3)
 9 51 (17.7) 18 (35.3) 3 (5.9) 19 (37.2) 5 (9.8) 6 (11.8)
 10 7 (2.4) 4 (57.1) 0 3 (42.9) 0 0
Caregiver’s education (n = 191)
 No schooling 90 (47.1) 32 (35.6) 3 (3.3) 39 (43.3) 10 (11.1) 6 (6.7)
 Primary school 50 (26.2) 19 (38.0) 2 (4.0) 26 (52.0) 2 (4.0) 1 (2.0)
 Secondary school 43 (22.5) 18 (41.8) 2 (4.7) 14 (32.6) 8 (18.6) 1 (2.3)
 Vocational college 7 (3.7) 2 (28.6) 0 3 (42.8) 0 2 (28.6)
 Undergraduate 1 (0.5) 0 1 (100.0) 0 0 0
Family income per month [in THB, 30 THB ≈ 1 USD]
 Respondent (n) 201 73 10 89 20 9
 Median 9000 9000 9500 9000 10,000 9000
 IQR 6000 5000 5000 4000 11,550 8000
 Minimum 700 700 5000 1000 1500 3500
 Maximum 50,000 30,000 50,000 50,000 30,000 40,000
Sufficiency of family income per month [≥ 26,025 THB]*
 Sufficient 8 (4.0) 1 (12.5) 1 (12.5) 3 (37.5) 2 (25.0) 1 (12.5)
 Insufficient 193 (96.0) 72 (37.3) 9 (4.7) 86 (44.5) 18 (9.3) 8 (4.2)
Breastfeeding (n = 212)
 Yes 188 (88.7) 72 (38.3) 9 (4.8) 82 (43.6) 16 (8.5) 9 (4.8)
 No 24 (11.3) 3 (12.5) 1 (4.2) 12 (50.0) 6 (25.0) 2 (8.3)
Brushing frequency before 2 years old (n = 215)
 No brushing 22 (10.2) 10 (45.4) 1 (4.6) 7 (31.8) 3 (13.6) 1 (4.6)
 Once a day 120 (55.8) 34 (28.3) 8 (6.7) 60 (50.0) 14 (11.7) 4 (3.3)
 Twice a day 65 (30.2) 31 (47.6) 1 (1.5) 25 (38.5) 4 (6.2) 4 (6.2)
 > 2 times a day 8 (3.8) 1 (12.5) 1 (12.5) 5 (62.5) 0 1 (12.5)
Brushing frequency at ≥ 2 years old (n = 224)
 Once a day 63 (28.1) 24 (38.1) 4 (6.4) 26 (41.2) 7 (11.1) 2 (3.2)
 Twice a day 129 (57.6) 46 (35.7) 8 (6.2) 56 (43.4) 11 (8.5) 8 (6.2)
 > 2 times a day 32 (14.3) 10 (31.3) 0 16 (50.0) 5 (15.6) 1 (3.1)
Toothpaste type (n = 211)
 Non-fluoride 12 (5.7) 4 (33.3) 0 5 (41.7) 1 (8.3) 2 (16.7)
 Fluoride 199 (94.3) 72 (36.2) 10 (5.0) 88 (44.2) 20 (10.1) 9 (4.5)
Toothpaste size (n = 220)
 Pea-sized 107 (48.6) 44 (41.1) 9 (8.4) 41 (38.3) 10 (9.4) 3 (2.8)
 > Pea-sized 113 (51.4) 36 (31.8) 3 (2.7) 54 (47.8) 13 (11.5) 7 (6.2)
Fluoride supplement (n = 221)
 No 160 (72.4) 56 (35.0) 9 (5.6) 74 (46.2) 14 (8.8) 7 (4.4)
 Yes 61 (27.6) 25 (41.0) 3 (4.9) 21 (34.4) 7 (11.5) 5 (8.2)
Time-averaged fluoride concentration (ppm)**
 Mean ± SD 2.4 ± 2.1 2.0 ± 1.6 1.7 ± 0.6 2.8 ± 2.2 2.8 ± 2.3 4.1 ± 3.5
 Median (IQR) 1.9 (0.9) 1.6 (1.1) 1.7 (0.6) 2.0 (1.4) 2.1 (1.4) 2.0 (7.1)
 Minimum 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.4 1.1 1.2
 Maximum 9.4 9.4 3.0 9.4 9.4 9.4
 < 0.7 30 (10.4) 22 (73.3) 1 (3.4) 7 (23.3) 0 0
 0.7–1.49 61 (21.1) 33 (54.1) 5 (8.2) 14 (23.0) 6 (9.8) 3 (4.9)
 ≥ 1.5 198 (68.5) 63 (31.8) 8 (4.1) 96 (48.4) 21 (10.6) 10 (5.1)
  1. SD, standard deviation; IQR, interquartile range; THB, Thai Baht; USD, US Dollar; ppm, parts per million
  2. Column percentage; Row percentage
  3. *Average family expenditure per month in 2015, Nakhon Pathom, Thailand
  4. **For each child, available measures of groundwater fluoride concentrations in drinking water sources supplying the child’s residence were time-averaged over the period of birth to the survey