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Table 1 Comparison of biological and psychological factors among participants without or with temporomandibular disorders (TMD)

From: Temporomandibular disorders among medical students in China: prevalence, biological and psychological risk factors

Characteristic Participants without TMD (n = 515) Participants with TMD (n = 239) p value
Biological factor
Age 18 (18, 19) 19 (18, 19) 0.172
Female 281 (54.6) 119 (49.8) 0.222
Sleep bruxism 56 (10.9) 56 (23.4) < 0.001
Awake bruxism 16 (3.1) 18 (7.5) 0.006
Empty chewing 39 (7.6) 50 (20.9) < 0.001
Unilateral chewing 172 (33.4) 135 (56.5) < 0.001
Chewing gum 135 (26.2) 81 (33.9) 0.030
Static occlusion
Angle’s malocclusion 185 (35.9) 92 (38.4) 0.464
Anterior teeth overbite 213 (41.3) 139 (58.1) < 0.001
Anterior teeth overjet 163 (31.7) 102 (42.7) 0.003
Posterior teeth crossbite 10 (1.9) 2 (0.8) 0.357
Posterior scissor bite 18 (3.5) 14 (5.9) 0.173
Psychological factor
Depression
 Prevalence 232 (45.0) 167 (69.9) < 0.001
 Average score 4 (3, 7) 7 (4,9) < 0.001
Anxiety
 Prevalence 163 (31.7) 166 (69.5) < 0.001
 Average score 3 (1, 5) 6 (4, 7) < 0.001
Sleep disturbance
 Prevalence 159 (30.9) 123 (51.5) < 0.001
 Average score 5 (3, 6) 6 (4,7) < 0.001