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Table 1 Characteristics of participants

From: Development a new chewing problem directory and its validation for Korean elders

Variable Developing sample
(n = 260)
Confirmation sample
(n = 277)
p value
Age, year 76.11 ± 5.01 76.50 ± 5.22 0.383
Sex    0.555
 Male 84 (30.3) 85 (32.7)  
 Female 193 (69.7) 175 (67.3)  
Educationa    0.763
 Middle school or less 214 (77.3) 198 (76.2)  
 High school or more 63 (22.7) 62 (23.8)  
Smokingb    0.539
 No 186 (67.1) 181 (69.6)  
 Yes 91 (32.9) 79 (30.4)  
Alcohol drinkingc    0.043
 No 105 (37.9) 77 (29.6)  
 Yes 172 (62.1) 183 (70.4)  
Periodontitisd    0.081
 No 60 (21.7) 41 (15.8)  
 Yes 217 (78.3) 219 (84.2)  
Metabolic syndromee    0.308
 No 125 (45.1) 106 (40.8)  
 Yes 152 (54.9) 154 (59.2)  
Frailty, n (%)    0.223
 No 228 (83.2) 224 (86.2)  
 Yes 49 (17.7) 36 (13.8)  
Dental status    0.470
 Dentate 162 (58.5) 160 (61.5)  
 Denture 115 (41.5) 100 (38.5)  
TOF, Newton 364.67 ± 314.67 369.51 ± 313.02 0.862
NRT 25.42 ± 4.16 25.44 ± 3.91 0.952
NRT Posterior 13.78 ± 3.26 13.86 ± 3.08 0.764
NT 16.39 ± 8.51 16.57 ± 8.76 0.814
NT Posterior 8.23 ± 5.18 8.01 ± 5.07 0.618
  1. Values denote as number (column percentage) for categorical variables and mean ± standard deviation (SD) for continuous variables
  2. TOF, total occlusion force; NRT, natural/rehabilitated teeth number; NT, natural teeth number; Posterior, premolars and molars
  3. p value was obtained from chi-square test for categorical variables and from T-test for continuous variables
  4. aEducation: "Middle school or less" refers to be educated until 9 years, the graduation of middle school, "High school or more" refers to be educated more than 9 years, entered into high school or more
  5. bSmoking: “No” refers to never smoked, “Yes” refers to past and current smoker
  6. cAlcohol drinking: “No” refers to drunken, “Yes” refers to past and current drinker
  7. dPeriodontitis: followed by guideline “Staging and grading of periodontitis: Framework and proposal of a new classification and case definition” (Tonetti et al., 2018) classified into two groups: No (healthy or stage I-II) and Yes (stage III-IV)
  8. eMetabolic syndrome: “No” refers to two or fewer factors, “Yes” refers to three or more factors among five factors: Obesity (body mass index (body kg/ height m2) ≥ 25); Total triglyceride ≥ 150 mg/dL; HDL cholesterol: Male < 40 mg/dL, Female < 50 mg/dL or medication for dyslipidemia; Hypertension: systolic blood pressure ≥ 130 mmHg or diastolic blood pressure ≥ 85 mmHg or medication for hypertension; Glycated hemoglobin ≥ 5.3% or medication for diabetes