United Nations. World population ageing 2019: highlights: report; United Nations, Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division: New York, 2019.
Suzman R, Beard JR, Boerma T, Chatterji S. Health in an ageing world-what do we know? The Lancet. 2015;385:484–6.
Livingston G, Huntley J, Sommerlad A, Ames D, Ballard C, Banerjee S, et al. Dementia prevention, intervention, and care: 2020 report of the Lancet Commission. Lancet. 2020;396:413–46.
Petersen PE. The World Oral Health Report 2003: continuous improvement of oral health in the 21st century–the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2003;31:3–23.
Azzolino D, Passarelli PC, De Angelis P, Piccirillo GB, D’Addona A, Cesari M. Poor oral health as a determinant of malnutrition and sarcopenia. Nutrients. 2019;11:2898.
Tsakos G, et al. Social relationships and oral health among adults aged 60 years or older. Psychosom Med. 2013;75:178–86.
Sanz M, Del Castillo AM, Jepsen S, Gonzalez-Juanatey JR, D’Aiuto F, Bouchard P, et al. Periodontitis and cardiovascular diseases. Consensus Report Glob Heart. 2020;15:1.
Kanagasingam S, Chukkapalli SS, Welbury R, Singhrao SK. Porphyromonas gingivalis is a strong risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease. J Alzheimers Dis Rep. 2020;4:501–11.
Thomson WM, Ma S. An ageing population poses dental challenges. Singapore Dent J. 2014;35:3–8.
Petersen PE. Challenges to improvement of oral health in the 21st century–the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. Int Dent J. 2004;54:329–43.
Wu B, Fillenbaum GG, Plassman BL, Guo L. Association between oral health and cognitive status: a systematic review. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2016;64:739–51.
Nangle MR, Riches J, Grainger SA, Manchery N, Sachdev PS, Henry JD. Oral health and cognitive function in older adults: a systematic review. Gerontology. 2019;65:659–72.
Nascimento PC, Castro MML, Magno MB, Almeida A, Fagundes N, Maia LC, et al. Association between periodontitis and cognitive impairment in adults: a systematic review. Front Neurol. 2019;10:323.
Nangle MR, Manchery N. Can chronic oral inflammation and masticatory dysfunction contribute to cognitive impairment? Curr Opin Psychiatry. 2020;33:156–62.
Wu B, Plassman BL, Liang J, Wei L. Cognitive function and dental care utilization among community-dwelling older adults. Am J Public Health. 2007;97:2216–21.
Lee KH, Plassman BL, Pan W, Wu B. Mediation effect of oral hygiene on the relationship between cognitive function and oral health in older adults. J Gerontol Nurs. 2016;42:30–7.
Chen X, Clark JJ, Chen H, Naorungroj S. Cognitive impairment, oral self-care function and dental caries severity in community-dwelling older adults. Gerodontology. 2015;32:53–61.
Chalmers JM, Carter KD, Spencer AJ. Caries incidence and increments in community-living older adults with and without dementia. Gerodontology. 2002;19:80–94.
Ship JA, Puckett SA. Longitudinal study on oral health in subjects with Alzheimer’s disease. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1994;42:57–63.
Chen X, Shuman SK, Hodges JS, Gatewood LC, Xu J. Patterns of tooth loss in older adults with and without dementia: a retrospective study based on a Minnesota cohort. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2010;58:2300–7.
Jones JA, Lavallee N, Alman J, Sinclair C, Garcia RI. Caries incidence in patients with dementia. Gerodontology. 1993;10:76–82.
Ellefsen B, Holm-Pedersen P, Morse DE, Schroll M, Andersen BB, Waldemar G. Assessing caries increments in elderly patients with and without dementia: a one-year follow-up study. J Am Dent Assoc. 2009;140:1392–400.
Kang J, Wu B, Bunce D, Ide M, Pavitt S, Wu J. Cognitive function and oral health among ageing adults. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2019;47:259–66.
Pitiphat W, Garcia RI, Douglass CW, Joshipura KJ. Validation of self-reported oral health measures. J Public Health Dent. 2002;62:122–8.
Ramos RQ, Bastos JL, Peres MA. Diagnostic validity of self-reported oral health outcomes in population surveys: literature review. Rev Bras Epidemiol. 2013;16:716–28.
Sachdev PS, Brodaty H, Reppermund S, Kochan NA, Trollor JN, Draper B, et al. The Sydney Memory and Ageing Study (MAS): methodology and baseline medical and neuropsychiatric characteristics of an elderly epidemiological non-demented cohort of Australians aged 70–90 years. Int Psychogeriatr. 2010;22:1248–64.
Chalmers JM, King PL, Spencer AJ, Wright FA, Carter KD. The oral health assessment tool-validity and reliability. Aust Dent J. 2005;50:191–9.
Deutsch A, Siegel E, Cations M, Wright C, Naganathan V, Brodaty H. A pilot study on the feasibility of training nurses to formulate multicomponent oral health interventions in a residential aged care facility. Gerodontology. 2017;34:469–78.
Lalloo R, Tadakamadla SK, Kroon J, Tut O, Kularatna S, Boase R, et al. Salivary characteristics and dental caries experience in remote Indigenous children in Australia: a cross-sectional study. BMC Oral Health. 2019;19:21.
Baliga S, Muglikar S, Kale R. Salivary pH: A diagnostic biomarker. J Indian Soc Periodontol. 2013;17:461–5.
Gotfredsen K, Walls AW. What dentition assures oral function? Clin Oral Implants Res. 2007;18:34–45.
Wechsler D. Wechsler memory scale. San Antonio: The Psychological Corporation; 1997.
Strauss E, Sherman EMS, Spreen O. A compendium of neuropsychological tests: administration, norms, and commentary. New York: Oxford University Press; 2006.
Benton AL, Sivan AB, Spreen O. Der benton test. Berne: Huber; 1966.
Benton AL. Problems of test construction in the field of aphasia. Cortex. 1967;3:32–58.
Kaplan E, Goodglass H, Weintraub S. The Boston naming test. Philadelphia: Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins; 2001.
Spreen O, Benton AL, University of V, Neuropsychology L. Neurosensory center comprehensive examination for aphasia (NCCEA), 977 revision manual of instructions. Neuropsychology Laboratory, University of Victoria, Victoria; 1977.
Wechsler D. WAIS-R: manual: Wechsler adult intelligence scale–revised. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich [for] Psychological Corp; 1981.
Paradise M, Seruga A, Crawford JD, Chaganti J, Thalamuthu A, Kochan NA, et al. The relationship of cerebral microbleeds to cognition and incident dementia in non-demented older individuals. Brain Imaging Behav. 2019;13:750–61.
Lipnicki DM, Crawford J, Kochan NA, Trollor JN, Draper B, Reppermund S, et al. Risk factors for mild cognitive impairment, dementia and mortality: The Sydney memory and ageing Study. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2017;18:388–95.
Yesavage JA, Brink TL, Rose TL, Lum O, Huang V, Adey M, et al. Development and validation of a geriatric depression screening scale: a preliminary report. J Psychiatr Res. 1982;17:37–49.
Hindmarch I, Lehfeld H, de Jongh P, Erzigkeit H. The bayer activities of daily living scale (B-ADL). Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 1998;9:20–6.
Lawton MP, Brody EM. Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist. 1969;9:179–86.
Hans R, Thomas S, Garla B, Dagli RJ, Hans MK. Effect of various sugary beverages on salivary pH, flow rate, and oral clearance rate amongst adults. Scientifica (Cairo). 2016;2016:5027283.
Manikandan S, Ayyappan, IIanchezhian T, Saimahitha V. Salivary pH as a diagnostic marker of oral health status. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res. 2018;51:41-4.
Sorensen CE, Hansen NL, Mortensen EL, Lauritzen M, Osler M, Pedersen AML. Hyposalivation and poor dental health status are potential correlates of age-related cognitive decline in late midlife in Danish men. Front Aging Neurosci. 2018;10:10.
Do MT, Vu H, Lee JK, Park SM, Son JS, Kim H-D. Salivary flow rate and the risk of cognitive impairment among Korean elders: a cross-sectional study. BMC Geriatr. 2021;21(1):245.
Lynge Pedersen AM, Belstrom D. The role of natural salivary defences in maintaining a healthy oral microbiota. J Dent. 2019;80:S3–12.
Nifli AP. Appetite, metabolism and hormonal regulation in normal ageing and dementia. Diseases. 2018;6:66.
Mungas D, Cooper JK, Weiler PG, Gietzen D, Franzi C, Bernick C. Dietary preference for sweet foods in patients with dementia. J Am Geriatr Soc. 1990;38:999–1007.
de Muniz BR, Maresca BM, Tumilasci OR, Perec CJ. Effects of an experimental diet on parotid saliva and dental plaque pH in institutionalized children. Arch Oral Biol. 1983;28(7):575–81.