- Research article
- Open Access
- Open Peer Review
Facial morphometrics of children with non-syndromic orofacial clefts in Tanzania
© Manyama et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2014
- Received: 27 April 2014
- Accepted: 25 July 2014
- Published: 29 July 2014
Orofacial clefts (cleft lip/palate; CL/P) are among the most common congenital anomalies, with prevalence that varies among different ethnic groups. Craniofacial shape differences between individuals with CL/P and healthy controls have been widely reported in non-African populations. Knowledge of craniofacial shape among individuals with non-syndromic CL/P in African populations will provide further understanding of the ethnic and phenotypic variation present in non-syndromic orofacial clefts.
A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out at Bugando Medical Centre, Tanzania, comparing individuals with unrepaired non-syndromic CL/P and normal individuals without orofacial clefts. Three-dimensional (3D) facial surfaces were captured using a non-invasive 3D camera. The corresponding 3D coordinates for 26 soft tissue landmarks were used to characterize facial shape. Facial shape variation within and between groups, based on Procrustes superimposed data, was studied using geometric morphometric methods.
Facial shape of children with cleft lip differed significantly from the control group, beyond the cleft itself. The CL/P group exhibited increased nasal and mouth width, increased interorbital distance, and more prognathic premaxillary region. Within the CL/P group, PCA showed that facial shape variation is associated with facial height, nasal cavity width, interorbital distance and midfacial prognathism. The isolated cleft lip (CL) and combined cleft lip and palate (CLP) groups did not differ significantly from one another (Procrustes distance = 0.0416, p = 0.50). Procrustes distance permutation tests within the CL/P group showed a significant shape difference between unilateral clefts and bilateral clefts (Procrustes distance = 0.0728, p = 0.0001). Our findings indicate the morphological variation is similar to those of studies of CL/P patients and their unaffected close relatives in non-African populations.
The mean facial shape in African children with non-syndromic CL/P differs significantly from children without orofacial clefts. The main differences involve interorbital width, facial width and midface prognathism. The axes of facial shape differences we observed are similar to the patterns seen in Caucasian populations, despite apparent differences in cleft prevalence and cleft type distribution. Similar facial morphology in individuals with CL/P in African and Caucasian populations suggests a similar aetiology.
- Centroid Size
- Facial Shape
- Procrustes Distance
- Orofacial Cleft
- Bugando Medical
Orofacial clefts are the most common craniofacial birth defects, accounting for about 15% of all congenital abnormalities , with both genetic and environmental risk factors implicated in the underlying aetiology [2, 3]. Normal variation of facial shape has also been reported to play a role in the familial transmission patterns of orofacial clefts [4, 5].
Individuals with CL/P manifest craniofacial growth patterns different from those of their unaffected peers [6–8]. These differences could result from primary abnormalities of growth of facial and skull structures, as well as secondary influences of the cleft itself . Facial shape differences that have been observed between individuals with CL/P and unaffected individuals include interocular distance or width, nasal base width, mouth width, lower facial height, nasal length and variable upper lip changes [6, 8] and facial asymmetries in the orbital, nasal and maxillary regions [10, 11]. Furthermore, somewhat atypical facial shape features have also been observed in parents and other close relatives of patients with CL/P, including thin upper lips, increased lower facial height and interorbital distances, and widening of the nasal cavity  as well as fluctuating and directional facial asymmetry . These latter findings indicate that inherited predisposition to orofacial clefts includes phenotypic aspects of facial shape that are near the extremes of normal variation.
Worldwide, the prevalence of orofacial clefts varies based on geography and ethnicity [13, 14]. Several studies have addressed facial shape variation associated with CL/P in Caucasian populations [6, 7, 15, 16], in which the prevalence of clefts is 0.91 to 2.69 per 1000 live births [17, 18]. However, there have been no reported studies of facial shape in individuals with CL/P in African populations, in which the prevalence of CL/P is considerably lower, 0.3 per 1,000 to 1.65 per 1,000 live births [19, 20], and the proportions of cleft types is also somewhat different , perhaps reflecting different underlying genetic and environmental aetiologies.
Historically, approaches to evaluate facial shape in patients with CL/P have included traditional two-dimensional (2D) photography, direct anthropometry of facial structures, and soft tissue radiography [22–24]. These techniques suffer from measurement inaccuracy, lack of shape information from the un-captured third dimension, and possible radiation risk to the patient. Craniofacial growth changes take place in three dimensions (3D), and developmental changes of the soft tissues and underlying skeletal structures can thus be best analyzed using 3D imaging techniques, which provide more accurate quantitative shape information about craniofacial structures. Recent studies of CL/P have begun to utilize the 3D approach [6–8, 15, 16], but no study of 3D facial shape in CL/P has been reported in an African population. The aim of this study was to quantify 3D differences in facial shape between African (Tanzanian) children with unrepaired non-syndromic CL/P and unaffected control subjects using geometric morphometric techniques. Furthermore, as treatment of CL/P often occurs quite late in childhood in many African patients, usually without pre-surgical facial molding efforts, analysis of facial shape in Tanzanian children scheduled for CL/P reparative surgery prior to surgical correction offers a unique opportunity to study the progression of facial shape in children with untreated orofacial clefts.
Distribution of individuals in the sample according to sex, cleft type and cleft laterality
Mean age ± SD
51.7 ± 36.4
40.5 ± 34.1
Type of cleft
30.7 ± 32.3
23.6 ± 31.2
30.3 ± 38.2
26.2 ± 30.9
39.3 ± 29.2
Data collection was done from 2008 to 2012. 3D facial surfaces were captured using the InSpeck 3D MegaCapturor white light digital stereophotogrammetric camera (Creaform Inc., Quebec, Canada), which acquires a 3D surface map in ~0.4 seconds using a 640 × 480 mm field of view with photo-realistic color and texture rendering. Facial scanning was performed with standardized head positions directly in front of the 3D camera while the subject was seated by themselves or on their mother’s lap, approximately 1 meter from the camera, with the lips at rest and eyes closed to minimize involuntary movement. Six standard views were obtained for each subject (frontal, left three-quarter profile, left, right three-quarter profile, right and inferior chin), which were processed and merged to obtain the full 3D facial image using InSpeck Facial Acquisition Processing Software (FAPS) and Editing and Merging software (EM) with a least possible error (approximately 0.300 mm) (Creaform Inc., Quebec, Canada).
List of landmarks used for evaluating facial shape
Number landmark description
The saddle point of the sking corresponding to the intersection of the frontal and nasal bones.
Midline maximum of the curve of the nose; the nasal tip.
Junction of the nose and philtrum (base of the columella).
Midline of vermillion border of the superior lip between the christa philtri.
Midpoint of the labial fissure.
Midline of the vermillion border of the inferior lip.
The most posterior midpoint on the labiomental soft tissue contour between the lower lip and chin
Midline point on the inferior border of the mandible.
The inner corner of the eye where upper and lower eyelids meet.
The outer corner of eye where the upper and lower eyelids meet.
The most lateral point on the nasal alar crest.
The most posterolateral point at the junction between alar wing and face.
The edge of nasal ala where cartilage of the nose inserts the tissue above the upper lip.
The point at each crossing of the vermilion line and the elevated margin of the philtrum
Point marking the corner of the lips/mouth.
Tip of the eminence at the front of the ear.
The highest point of the junction between the alar wing and face.
MorphoJ v1.04a software was used to carry out geometric morphometric analysis of landmark configurations . 3D landmark data for each individual were imported without object symmetry to preserve facial asymmetry resulting from unilateral clefts. The data were subjected to Procrustes superimposition to rescale to standard size, translate to standard position and rotate to standard orientation . To compare unilateral versus bilateral clefts as a group, all individuals with right-side clefts were mirrored to have left-side clefts, by inverting the sign of the x-coordinate for all landmarks. Comparisons of left versus right, however, were carried out on the data prior to mirroring.
Standardization of the dataset for age and size was carried out in MorphoJ , using multivariate regression to create a line of best fit for age against the Procrustes coordinates and pooling the data by groups (control and cleft status). The 24 month difference in mean age between the controls and CL/P group is small enough that a linear approximation of shape change with age removes the vast majority of age-related shape variation. The only deviation from this occurs at the extreme lower end of CL/P group, where facial adiposity may introduce some uncontrolled variation into the sample; however, the slope of the age regressions look similar in both the control and CL/P groups. We then adjusted the age-standardized regression residuals for allometry by controlling for centroid size and these residuals, which are an adjusted set of 3D coordinates that describe facial shape after removing the age and size variation within each sample, were used in all subsequent shape analyses.
Using MorphoJ, facial shape variation was analyzed in the combined dataset of cleft and control children and also separately in the CL/P group (unilateral and bilateral) using Principal Component Analyses (PCA). Differences in shape between non-cleft children and unrepaired CL/P children and between unilateral and bilateral clefts in the unrepaired CL/P group were analyzed using Canonical Variate Analyses (CVA). Permutation analysis (10,000 permutations) for the mean Procrustes distance between groups as well as Procrustes ANOVA was used to assess significance of differences between groups. Since geometric morphometric techniques retain the intrinsic geometry in landmark coordinate data, shape variation along a given PC or CV axis can be displayed and visualized graphically. We compared groups using the set of age and centroid size regression residuals due to cleft status (cleft or control), cleft type (isolated CL or combined CL/P), bilateral versus unilateral, and cleft side (right versus left).
Ontogeny, allometry and sexual dimorphism
Shape variation in the combined sample of CL/P and non-cleft children
Facial shape variation within the CL/P group (unilateral and bilateral)
Facial shape variation within the CL/P group (unilateral only)
Based on the significant contribution to facial shape variation by unilateral or bilateral clefts, we performed a separate analysis of the unilateral cleft group, in which we mirrored the left sides so that the clefts always appear on the “right” (N = 36). Permutation tests found no significant differences were seen between the cleft types (Procrustes distance = 0.0566, p = 0.25). In this analysis the first ten PCs explained 79.53% of facial shape variance in the group, with PC1 and PC2 accounting for approximately 17% and 14% of shape variance respectively. Variation along PC1 is associated primarily with nasal and mouth width, lower facial height and interorbital distance. PC2 is associated with nasal width, and maxillary prognathism.
Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics is a useful tool for assessing craniofacial form, providing detailed quantitative shape information about facial structures and regions. In this study, the facial shape of individuals with CL/P were analysed and compared with those from control subjects of the same ethnicity. This is the first study of facial shape differences in individuals with orofacial clefts in an African population.
Our results revealed various morphological differences in the CL/P group, none of which were sex-specific. Faces in the CL/P group were characterized by increased interorbital distance, decreased upper facial depth (in the anteroposterior direction), and prognathic premaxilla. These results are broadly consistent with similar studies in Caucasian CL/P patients and their relatives, which have reported increased facial and interorbital width [31–34], flattening of the face, prognathism of the premaxilla and mandible [33, 35–39] and increased facial height [32, 38, 40].
The patterns of facial variation associated with orofacial clefts observed in this study could be a result of many factors, including genetic, environmental risk factors and their interactions. For example, variation in interorbital distance is associated with variation in midfacial outgrowth, which is regulated by Shh expression in the frontonasal ectodermal zone . This dimension of facial shape could also be associated with variation in the rate of growth of the forebrain relative to the rate of outgrowth of the facial prominences, as suggested by animal studies . This variable likely reflects an underlying developmental process, such as midfacial outgrowth or its relation to brain growth, that also plays an aetiologic role in CL/P in humans. Protrusion of the premaxilla, observed in the CL/P group, may relate to abnormal direction of alveolar growth and underdevelopment of the maxillary segments during early development . Increased width of the embryonic midface might reflect improper or underdevelopment of embryonic facial prominences, thereby altering their spatial relationship and reducing the likelihood of correct contact and fusion . This is supported by evidence from A/WySn mouse strains that have wider faces and increased risk of CL/P due to a Wnt9b hypomorphic allele [44, 45]. Deficient or altered outgrowth of the maxillary prominences due to an Ap2A hypomorphic allele is also associated with CL/P in mice .
Flattening of the midfacial region in CL/P has been attributed to reduction in local growth of the medial nasal and maxillary prominences [33, 44, 47]. It has been argued that the rate of outgrowth of the facial prominences during face formation, particularly relative to growth of the brain, is associated with a variation in the window of opportunity for fusion of the facial prominences . If variation in facial prominence outgrowth contributes to variation in facial prognathism, there might be a causal connection between the generally more prognathic faces seen in African populations  and the apparent lower incidence of CL/P in Africans.
Our results did not show significant facial shape differences between individuals with isolated CL versus patients with combined CL/P. This seems surprising, as combined CL/P is a more severe malformation that might be expected to result in greater global morphologic differences. Indeed, most previous studies of facial shape in CL/P have shown significant facial shape differences between these two groups [15, 16, 49]. The absence of apparent significant facial shape differences between the isolated CL and combined CL/P groups might be due to small sample size in the combined CL/P group in our study.
This study has shown that facial shape variation associated with non-syndromic orofacial clefts in African children is similar to the patterns seen in Caucasian populations, despite apparent differences in cleft prevalence and cleft type distribution. Similar facial morphology in individuals with CL/P in African and Caucasian populations suggests that the developmental processes that are perturbed to produce clefts in these populations are generally similar. Differences in cleft frequency and type are thus not associated with qualitatively different patterns of facial shape variation in Tanzanian children from those previously reported in other populations.
We would like to thank staff of Bugando Medical Centre (Departments of Surgery and Medical records) for the great help they rendered to us during the process of data collection. We would also like to thank Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research for providing funding that enabled us to buy the MegaCapturor Camera used in the data collection.
This study was supported by Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research through a Major equipment grant, National Institutes of Health grants 1U01DE020054 (to RS, BH) and 1R01DE01963 and1R01DE021708 to (BH) and National Science and Engineering Research Council grant #238992-12 to BH. JRL is supported by a CIHR Training Program in Genetics, Child Development & Health Graduate Studentship. MM was supported in part by the Faculty of Medicine and the O’Brien Bachelor of Health Sciences Program.
- Shapira Y, Lubit E, Kuftinec MM, Borell G: The distribution of clefts of the primary and secondary palates by sex, type, and location. Angle Orthod. 1999, 69 (6): 523-528.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Jones MC: Etiology of facial clefts: prospective evaluation of 428 patients. Cleft Palate J. 1988, 25 (1): 16-20.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kallen B, Harris J, Robert E: The epidemiology of orofacial clefts. 2. Associated malformations. J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol. 1996, 16 (4): 242-248.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Fraser FC, H Pashayan H: Relation of face shape to susceptibility to congenital cleft lip. A preliminary report. J Med Genet. 1970, 7 (2): 112-117.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Weinberg SM, Maher BS, Marazita ML: Parental craniofacial morphology in cleft lip with or without cleft palate as determined by cephalometry: a meta-analysis. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2006, 9 (1): 18-30.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Duffy S, Noar JH, Evans RD, Sanders R: Three-dimensional analysis of the child cleft face. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2000, 37 (2): 137-144.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ferrario VF, Sforza C, Dellavia C, Tartaglia GM, Sozzi D, Caru A: A quantitative three-dimensional assessment of abnormal variations in facial soft tissues of adult patients with cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2003, 40 (5): 544-549.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Singh GD, Rivera-Robles J, De Jesus-Vinas J: Longitudinal craniofacial growth patterns in patients with orofacial clefts: geometric morphometrics. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2004, 41 (2): 136-143.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mars M: Facial growth. Management of cleft lip and palate. Edited by: Waltson A, Sell D, Grunwell P. 2004, London: Whurr, 44-67.Google Scholar
- Hood CA, Bock M, Hosey MT, Bowman A, Ayoub AF: Facial asymmetry and 3D assessment of infants with cleft lip & palate. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2003, 13 (6): 404-410.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zemann W, Santler G, Karcher H: Analysis of midface asymmetry in patients with cleft lip, alveolus and palate at the age of 3 months using 3D-COSMOS measuring system. J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2000, 30 (3): 148-152.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Neiswanger K, Cooper ME, Liu YE, Hu D-N, Melnick M, Marazita ML: Bilateral asymmetry in Chinese families with cleft lip with or without cleft palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2005, 42: 192-196.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Mossey PA, Castillia E: World Health Organisation. Global Registry and Database on Craniofacial Anomalies Eds. WHO Reports, Human Genetics Programme: International Collaborative Research on Craniofacial Anomalies, WHO publications, Geneva, Switzerland. 2003, ISBN 92 4 159110 2Google Scholar
- Weinberg SM, Neiswanger K, Martin RA, Mooney MP, Kane AA, Wenger SL, Losee J, Deleyiannis F, Ma L, De Salamanca JE, Czeizel AE, Marazita ML: The Pittsburgh Oral-Facial Cleft study: expanding the cleft phenotype. Background and justification. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2006, 43 (1): 7-20.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bugaighis I, O’Higgins P, Tiddeman B, Mattick C, Ben Ali O, Hobson R: Three-dimensional geometric morphometrics applied to the study of children with cleft lip and/or palate from the North East of England. Eur J Orthod. 2010, 32: 514-521.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Bugaighis I, Mattick CR, Tiddeman B, Hobson R: 3D Facial Morphometry in Children with Oral Clefts. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2013, Epub ahead of printGoogle Scholar
- Vanderas AP: Incidence of cleft lip, cleft palate, and cleft lip and palate among races: a review. Cleft Palate J. 1987, 24 (3): 216-225.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- IPDTOC Working Group: Worldwide Prevalence data on Cleft lip/Cleft palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2011, 48 (1): 66-81.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Iregbulem LM: The incidence of cleft lip and cleft palate in Nigeria. Cleft Palate J. 1982, 19: 201-205.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Khan AA: Congenital malformation in African neonates in Nairobi. J Trop Med Hyg. 1965, 68: 272-PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Manyama M, Rolian C, Gilyoma J, Magori CC, Mjema K, Mazyala E, Kimwaga E, Hallgrimsson B: An assessment of orofacial clefts in Tanzania. BMC Oral Health. 2011, 11: 5-View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Sadowsky C, Aduss H, Pruzansky S: The soft tissue profile in unilateral clefts. Angle Orthod. 1973, 43 (3): 233-246.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Susami T, Kamiyama H, Uji M, Motohashi N, Kuroda T: Quantitative evaluation of the shape and the elasticity of repaired cleft lip. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1993, 30 (3): 309-312.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Zhu NW, Senewiratne S, Pigott RW: Lip posture and mouth width in children with unilateral cleft lip. Br J Plast Surg. 1994, 47 (5): 301-305.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Farkas LG: Anthropometry of the head and face. 1994, New York: Raven, 405-Google Scholar
- Weinberg SM, Scott NM, Neiswanger K, Brandon CA, Marazita ML: Digital three-dimensional photogrammetry: evaluation of anthropometric precision and accuracy using a Genex 3D camera system. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2004, 41 (5): 507-518.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Naser-ud-Din S, Thoirs K, Sampson WJ: Ultrasonography, lateral cephalometry and 3D imaging of the human masseter muscle. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2011, 14 (1): 33-43.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weinberg SM, Naidoo S, Govier DP, Martin RA, Kane AA, Marazita ML: Anthropometric precision and accuracy of digital three-dimensional photogrammetry: comparing the Genex and 3dMD imaging systems with one another and with direct anthropometry. J Craniofac Surg. 2006, 17 (3): 477-483.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Klingenberg CP: MorphoJ: an integrated software package for geometric morphometrics. Mol Ecol Resour. 2011, 11 (2): 353-357.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Slice DE: Modern morphometrics in physical anthropology. 2005, New York: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, 383-View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Hirschfeld WJ, Aduss H: Interorbital distance in cleft lip and palate: significant differences found by sign test. J Dent Res. 1974, 53 (4): 947-View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Nakasima A, Ichinose M: Characteristics of craniofacial structures of parents of children with cleft lip and/or palate. Am J Orthod. 1983, 84 (2): 140-146.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Weinberg SM, Naidoo SD, Bardi KM, Brandon CA, Neiswanger K, Resick JM, Martin RA, Marazita ML: Face shape of unaffected parents with cleft affected offspring: combining three-dimensional surface imaging and geometric morphometrics. Orthod Craniofac Res. 2009, 12 (4): 271-281.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Yoon YJ, Perkiomaki MR, Tallents RH, Barillas I, Herrera-Guido R, Fong CT, Kyrkanides S: Transverse craniofacial features and their genetic predisposition in families with nonsyndromic unilateral cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2004, 41 (3): 256-261.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Coccaro PJ, D’Amico R, Chavoor A: Craniofacial morphology of parents with and without cleft lip and palate children. Cleft Palate J. 1972, 9 (1): 28-38.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Smahel Z: Craniofacial morphology in adults with bilateral complete cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate J. 1984, 21 (3): 159-169.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Smahel Z, Brejcha M, Mullerova Z: Craniofacial morphology in unilateral cleft lip and palate in adults. Acta Chir Plast. 1991, 33 (4): 224-241.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Da Silva Filho OG, Carvalho Lauris RC, Capelozza Filho L, Semb G: Craniofacial morphology in adult patients with unoperated complete bilateral cleft lip and palate. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 1998, 35 (2): 111-119.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Liao YF, Huang CS, Liou JW, Lin WY, Ko WC: Premaxillary size and craniofacial growth in patients with cleft lip and palate. Changgeng Yi Xue Za Zhi. 1998, 21 (4): 391-396.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Holst AI, Holst S, Nkenke E, Fenner M, Hirschfelder U: Vertical and sagittal growth in patients with unilateral and bilateral cleft lip and palate-a retrospective cephalometric evaluation. Cleft Palate Craniofac J. 2009, 46 (5): 512-520.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Young NM, Chong HJ, Hu D, Hallgrimsson B, Marcucio RS: Quantitative analyses link modulation of sonic hedgehog signaling to continuous variation in facial growth and shape. Development. 2010, 137 (20): 3405-3409.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Parsons TE, Schmidt EJ, Boughner JC, Jamniczky HA, Marcucio RS, Hallgrı’msson B: Epigenetic Integration of the Developing Brain and Face. Dev Dyn. 2011, 240: 2697-View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Da Silva Filho OG, Normando AD, Capelozza FL: Mandibular growth in patients with cleft lip and/or cleft palate–the influence of cleft type. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1993, 104 (3): 269-275.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Parsons TE, Kristensen E, Hornung L, Diewert VM, Boyd SK, German RZ, Hallgrı’msson B: Phenotypic variability and craniofacial dysmorphology: increased shape variance in a mouse model for cleft lip. J Anat. 2008, 212 (2): 135-143.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Wang KY, Diewert VM: A morphometric analysis of craniofacial growth in cleft lip and noncleft mice. J Craniofac Genet Dev Biol. 1992, 12 (3): 141-154.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Green RM, Fish JL, Smith F, Marcucio RS, Williams TJ, Hallgrimsson B: Canalization and facial morphogenesis in FGF8 hypomorphic mice. Am J Phys Anth. 2014, S58: 130-Google Scholar
- Young NM, Wat S, Diewert VM, Browder LW, Hallgrı’msson B: Comparative morphometrics of embryonic facial morphogenesis: implications for cleft-lip etiology. Anat Rec. 2007, 290 (1): 123-139.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Howells WW: Cranial variation in man; a study by multivariate analysis of patterns of difference among recent human populations. 1973, Cambridge, Massachusetts: Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology, Harvard UniversityGoogle Scholar
- Smahel Z: Variations in craniofacial morphology with severity of isolated cleft palate. Cleft Palate J. 1984, 21 (3): 140-158.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6831/14/93/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly credited. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver (http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.