Watt RG, Sheiham A. Integrating the common risk factor approach into a social determinants framework. Commun Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2012;40(4):289–96.
Lee JY, Divaris K. The ethical imperative of addressing oral health disparities: a unifying framework. J Dent Res. 2014;93(3):224–30.
Finlayson TL, Williams DR, Siefert K, Jackson JS, Nowjack-Raymer R. Oral health disparities and psychosocial correlates of self-rated oral health in the National Survey of American Life. Am J Public Health. 2010;100(Suppl 1):S246–55.
Fisher-Owens SA, Gansky SA, Platt LJ, Weintraub JA, Soobader MJ, Bramlett MD, Newacheck PW. Influences on children’s oral health: a conceptual model. Pediatrics. 2007;120(3):e510-520.
de Jong-Lenters M, Duijster D, Bruist MA, Thijssen J, de Ruiter C. The relationship between parenting, family interaction and childhood dental caries: a case-control study. Soc Sci Med. 1982;2014(116):49–55.
De Lepeleere S, DeSmet A, Verloigne M, Cardon G, De Bourdeaudhuij I. What practices do parents perceive as effective or ineffective in promoting a healthy diet, physical activity, and less sitting in children: parent focus groups. BMC Public Health. 2013;13:1067.
Kumar S, Tadakamadla J, Zimmer-Gembeck MJ, Kroon J, Lalloo R, Johnson NW. Parenting practices and children’s dental caries experience: a structural equation modelling approach. Commun Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2017;45(6):552–8.
Duijster D, Verrips GH, van Loveren C. The role of family functioning in childhood dental caries. Commun Dent Oral Epidemiol. 2014;42(3):193–205.
Kumar S, Tadakamadla J, Zimmer-Gembeck M, Kroon J, Lalloo R, Johnson NW. The effect of parenting practices on the severity of gingival bleeding in children. J Periodontol. 2017;88(8):744–51.
Alagla MA, Al Hussyeen A, Alhowaish L. Do parenting styles affect children’s oral health in Saudi Arabia? Cureus. 2019;11(10):e6002–e6002.
Hooley M, Skouteris H, Boganin C, Satur J, Kilpatrick N. Parental influence and the development of dental caries in children aged 0–6 years: a systematic review of the literature. J Dent. 2012;40(11):873–85.
Nanjappa S, Hector M, Marcenes W. Mother’s perception of general family functioning and sugar consumption of 3- and 4-year-old children: the east London family study. Caries Res. 2015;49(5):515–22.
El Tantawi M, Bakhurji E, Al-Ansari A, Al-Khalifa KS, AlSubaie A. Influences of parents, close friends and classmates on four co-existing oral health practices in Saudi male teenagers. Acta Odontol Scand. 2017;75(2):137–43.
Duijster D, O’Malley L, Elison S, Van Loveren C, Marcenes W, Adair PM, Pine CM. Family relationships as an explanatory variable in childhood dental caries: a systematic review of measures. Caries Res. 2013;47(Suppl 1):22–39.
Dwairy M, Achoui M, Abouserie R, Farah A, Sakhleh AA, Fayad M, Khan HK. Parenting styles in Arab Societies: a first cross-regional research study. J Cross Cult Psychol. 2006;37(3):230–47.
Aly NM, Mohamed AA, Abdelaziz WE. Parenting practices and oral health status in rural areas in Egypt: a household survey. BMC Oral Health. 2020;20(1):134.
Smokowski PR, Bacallao ML, Cotter KL, Evans CB. The effects of positive and negative parenting practices on adolescent mental health outcomes in a multicultural sample of rural youth. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2015;46(3):333–45.
Annual Statistics Report. https://www.capmas.gov.eg/Pages/StaticPages.aspx?page_id=5035.
The Egyptian Center for Public Opinion Research. Population situation analysis in Egypt; 2016. https://egypt.unfpa.org/sites/default/files/pub-pdf/PSAFinal.pdf. Accessed 5 Feb 2020.
Tavassolie T, Dudding S, Madigan AL, Thorvardarson E, Winsler A. Differences in perceived parenting style between mothers and fathers: implications for child outcomes and marital conflict. J Child Fam Stud. 2016;25(6):2055–68.
Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics (CAPMAS): population statistics in administrative units in Egypt; 2016. http://www.capmas.gov.eg/Admin/Pages%20Files/%D8%A7%D9%84%D9%88%D8%AD%D8%AF%D8%A7%D8%AA%20%D8%A7%D9%84%D8%A7%D8%AF%D8%B1%D8%A7%D9%8A%D8%A9%202016.pdf. Accessed 10 Jan 2020.
Abbass MMS, Mahmoud SA, El Moshy S, Rady D, AbuBakr N, Radwan IA, Ahmed A, Abdou A, Al Jawaldeh A. The prevalence of dental caries among Egyptian children and adolescences and its association with age, socioeconomic status, dietary habits and other risk factors. A cross-sectional study. F1000Research. 2019;8:8.
MedCalc Statistical Software version 18.2.1 (MedCalc Software bvba, Ostend, Belgium; Available from: http://www.medcalc.org; 2018).
Sample size and power for regression http://web.pdx.edu/~newsomj/mvclass/ho_sample%20size.pdf.
Scott S, Briskman J, Dadds MR. Measuring parenting in community and public health research using brief child and parent reports. J Child Fam Stud. 2011;20(3):343–52.
World Health Organization (WHO). Oral health surveys: basic methods. 5th ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2013.
Badahdah A, Le KT. Parenting young Arab children: psychometric properties of an adapted Arabic brief version of the Alabama parenting questionnaire. Child Psychiatry Hum Dev. 2016;47(3):486–93.
Loe H, Silness J. Periodontal disease in pregnancy. I. Prevalence and severity. Acta Odontol Scand. 1963;21:533–51.
Kposowa AJ, Aly Ezzat D. Religiosity, conservatism, and acceptability of anti-female spousal violence in Egypt. J Interpers Violence. 2019;34(12):2525–50.
Tausch A. Multivariate analyses of the global acceptability rates of male intimate partner violence (IPV) against women based on World Values Survey data. Int J Health Plan Manag. 2019;34(4):1155–94.
International Labour Office: Labour market transitions of young women and men in Egypt; 2014. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---dgreports/---dcomm/documents/publication/wcms_247596.pdf. Accessed 22 Feb 2020.
Keo C, Krafft C, Fedi L. Rural women in Egypt: opportunities and vulnerabilities; 2019. https://ideas.repec.org/p/erg/wpaper/1359.html. Accessed 23 Feb 2020.
Nelson KM, Carey KB, Scott-Sheldon LAJ, Eckert TL, Park A, Vanable PA, Ewart CK, Carey MP. Gender differences in relations among perceived family characteristics and risky health behaviors in urban adolescents. Ann Behav Med Publ Soc Behav Med. 2017;51(3):416–22.
Yaffe Y. Physical activity among Israeli-Arab adolescent males: how do parenting styles matter? Am J Mens Health. 2018;12(6):2037–43.
Petruzelka B, Vacek J, Gavurova B, Kubak M, Gabrhelik R, Rogalewicz V, Bartak M. Interaction of socioeconomic status with risky internet use, gambling and substance use in adolescents from a structurally disadvantaged region in Central Europe. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2020;17(13):4803.
Ssewanyana D, Abubakar A, Newton C, Otiende M, Mochamah G, Nyundo C, Walumbe D, Nyutu G, Amadi D, Doyle AM, et al. Clustering of health risk behaviors among adolescents in Kilifi, Kenya, a rural Sub-Saharan African setting. PLoS ONE. 2020;15(11):e0242186.
Aleksejūnienė J, Brukienė V. Parenting style, locus of control, and oral hygiene in adolescents. Medicina. 2012;48(2):9.
Kalina O, Madarasova Geckova A, Klein D, Jarcuska P, Orosova O, van Dijk JP, Reijneveld SA. Mother’s and father’s monitoring is more important than parental social support regarding sexual risk behaviour among 15-year-old adolescents. Eur J Contracept Reprod Health Care Off J Eur Soc Contracept. 2013;18(2):95–103.
Borawski EA, Ievers-Landis CE, Lovegreen LD, Trapl ES. Parental monitoring, negotiated unsupervised time, and parental trust: the role of perceived parenting practices in adolescent health risk behaviors. J Adolesc Health Off Publ Soc Adolesc Med. 2003;33(2):60–70.
Berge JM, Wall M, Bauer KW, Neumark-Sztainer D. Parenting characteristics in the home environment and adolescent overweight: a latent class analysis. Obesity. 2010;18(4):818–25.